Heat and drought stress frequently occur together, however their impact on plant growth and photosynthesis (PN) is unclear. The frequency, duration and severity of heat and drought stress events are predicted to increase in the future, having severe implications for agricultural productivity and food security. To assess these impacts on plant gas exchange, physiology and morphology we grew drought tolerant and sensitive varieties of C3 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and C4 maize (Zea mays) under conditions of elevated temperature for three weeks prior to the imposition of water deficit. The negative impact of temperature on PN was most apparent in sunflower. The drought tolerant sunflower retained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity under heat stress to a greater extent than its drought sensitive counterpart. Maize exhibited no varietal difference in response to increased temperature. In contrast to previous studies where a sudden rise in temperature induced an increase in stomatal conductance (Gs), we observed no change or a reduction in Gs with elevated temperature. Furthermore, growth at the higher temperature significantly reduced plant size in both species. This lower leaf area alongside identical or reduced Gs mitigated the impact of drought at the higher temperature. The drought tolerant sunflower and maize varieties exhibited greater investment in root-systems, possibly allowing greater uptake of the available soil water. This study suggests that elevated temperatures associated with heat-waves will have profound negative impacts on crop growth in both sunflower and maize, but the deleterious effect on PN was less apparent in the drought tolerant sunflower and both maize varieties. However, the interaction of heat stress and water deficit is highly dependent upon the existing temperature acclimation of the crop, photosynthetic pathway (C3 or C4) and genotype of the plant. As C4 plants generally exhibit water use efficiency (WUE) and resistance to heat stress, selection on the basis of tolerance to heat and drought stress would be more beneficial to the yields of C3 cops cultivated in drought prone semi-arid regions.

Adaptation to high temperature mitigates the impact of water deficit during combined heat and drought stress in C3 sunflower and C4 maize varieties with contrasting drought tolerance / Killi, D; Bussotti, F.; Raschi, A.; Haworth, M.. - In: PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM. - ISSN 0031-9317. - STAMPA. - 159:(2017), pp. 130-147. [10.1111/ppl.12490]

Adaptation to high temperature mitigates the impact of water deficit during combined heat and drought stress in C3 sunflower and C4 maize varieties with contrasting drought tolerance

KILLI HAWORTH, DILEK;BUSSOTTI, FILIPPO;
2017

Abstract

Heat and drought stress frequently occur together, however their impact on plant growth and photosynthesis (PN) is unclear. The frequency, duration and severity of heat and drought stress events are predicted to increase in the future, having severe implications for agricultural productivity and food security. To assess these impacts on plant gas exchange, physiology and morphology we grew drought tolerant and sensitive varieties of C3 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and C4 maize (Zea mays) under conditions of elevated temperature for three weeks prior to the imposition of water deficit. The negative impact of temperature on PN was most apparent in sunflower. The drought tolerant sunflower retained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity under heat stress to a greater extent than its drought sensitive counterpart. Maize exhibited no varietal difference in response to increased temperature. In contrast to previous studies where a sudden rise in temperature induced an increase in stomatal conductance (Gs), we observed no change or a reduction in Gs with elevated temperature. Furthermore, growth at the higher temperature significantly reduced plant size in both species. This lower leaf area alongside identical or reduced Gs mitigated the impact of drought at the higher temperature. The drought tolerant sunflower and maize varieties exhibited greater investment in root-systems, possibly allowing greater uptake of the available soil water. This study suggests that elevated temperatures associated with heat-waves will have profound negative impacts on crop growth in both sunflower and maize, but the deleterious effect on PN was less apparent in the drought tolerant sunflower and both maize varieties. However, the interaction of heat stress and water deficit is highly dependent upon the existing temperature acclimation of the crop, photosynthetic pathway (C3 or C4) and genotype of the plant. As C4 plants generally exhibit water use efficiency (WUE) and resistance to heat stress, selection on the basis of tolerance to heat and drought stress would be more beneficial to the yields of C3 cops cultivated in drought prone semi-arid regions.
2017
159
130
147
Killi, D; Bussotti, F.; Raschi, A.; Haworth, M.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1059810
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