The removal of aged varnishes from the surface of easel paintings using the common conservation practice (i.e., by means of organic solvents) often causes pigment leaching, paint loss, and varnish redeposition. Recently, we proposed an innovative cleaning system based on semi-interpenetrated polymer networks (SIPNs), where a covalently cross-linked poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA, network is interpenetrated by linear chains of poly-(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP. This chemical gel, simply loaded with water, was designed to safely remove surface dirt from water-sensitive artifacts. Here, we modified the SIPN to confine complex cleaning fluids, able to remove aged varnishes. These complex fluids are 5-component water-based nanostructured systems, where organic solvents are partially dispersed as nanosized droplets in a continuous aqueous phase, using surfactants. The rheological behavior of the SIPN and the nanostructure of the fluids loaded into the gel were investigated, and the mechanical behavior of the gel was optimized by varying both the cross-linking density and the polymer concentration. Once loaded with the complex fluids, the hydrogels maintained their structural and mechanical features, while the complex fluids showed a decrease in the size of the dispersed solvent droplets. Two challenging case studies have been selected to evaluate the applicability of the SIPN hydrogels loaded with the complex fluids. The first case study concerns the removal of a surface layer composed by an aged brown resinous patina from a wood panel, the second case study concerns the removal of a homogeneous layer of yellowed varnish from a watercolor on paper. The results show that the confinement of complex fluids into gels allowed unprecedented removal of varnishes from artifacts overcoming the limitations of traditional cleaning methods.

Complex Fluids Confined into Semi-interpenetrated Chemical Hydrogels for the Cleaning of Classic Art: A Rheological and SAXS Study / Baglioni, Michele; Domingues, Joana A.; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero*. - In: ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. - ISSN 1944-8244. - STAMPA. - 10:(2018), pp. 19162-19172. [10.1021/acsami.8601841]

Complex Fluids Confined into Semi-interpenetrated Chemical Hydrogels for the Cleaning of Classic Art: A Rheological and SAXS Study

Baglioni, Michele;Carretti, Emiliano;Fratini, Emiliano;Chelazzi, David;Giorgi, Rodorico;Baglioni, Piero
2018

Abstract

The removal of aged varnishes from the surface of easel paintings using the common conservation practice (i.e., by means of organic solvents) often causes pigment leaching, paint loss, and varnish redeposition. Recently, we proposed an innovative cleaning system based on semi-interpenetrated polymer networks (SIPNs), where a covalently cross-linked poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA, network is interpenetrated by linear chains of poly-(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP. This chemical gel, simply loaded with water, was designed to safely remove surface dirt from water-sensitive artifacts. Here, we modified the SIPN to confine complex cleaning fluids, able to remove aged varnishes. These complex fluids are 5-component water-based nanostructured systems, where organic solvents are partially dispersed as nanosized droplets in a continuous aqueous phase, using surfactants. The rheological behavior of the SIPN and the nanostructure of the fluids loaded into the gel were investigated, and the mechanical behavior of the gel was optimized by varying both the cross-linking density and the polymer concentration. Once loaded with the complex fluids, the hydrogels maintained their structural and mechanical features, while the complex fluids showed a decrease in the size of the dispersed solvent droplets. Two challenging case studies have been selected to evaluate the applicability of the SIPN hydrogels loaded with the complex fluids. The first case study concerns the removal of a surface layer composed by an aged brown resinous patina from a wood panel, the second case study concerns the removal of a homogeneous layer of yellowed varnish from a watercolor on paper. The results show that the confinement of complex fluids into gels allowed unprecedented removal of varnishes from artifacts overcoming the limitations of traditional cleaning methods.
2018
10
19162
19172
Baglioni, Michele; Domingues, Joana A.; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero*
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1132296
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