Background The Mediterranean area is endemic for the zoonotic form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum, a species which has been recently associated with unexpected epidemiological and clinical features. Method We report the result of a systematic review of the literature on VL unusually presenting with spleen focal lesions, including three previously unpublished cases. Results A total of 28 cases of VL with multiple spleen focal lesions were retrieved. Twenty-six (93%) were acquired in the Mediterranean area, where L. infantum is endemic. Thirteen cases were diagnosed in children, and the remaining 15 cases in middle-aged adults, of whom 9 were immunosuppressed. Four patients (14%) underwent diagnostic splenectomy, while the diagnosis was confirmed by less invasive techniques in the remaining patients. The most common radiological patterns were: multiple subcentimetric or centimetric spleen lesions (size≤1 cm in 14 of 19 cases, 74%), hypoechoic at ultrasonography (25 of 26 cases, 99%) and hypodense at CT scan (9 of 10 cases, 90%). PET-CT (available for four patients) showed an intense FDG spleen uptake. MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, available for two and one cases each, showed complex patterns. Conclusions VL must be added to the list of possible differential diagnosis of spleen focal lesions and health care provider awareness about this condition will avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.

Focal spleen lesions in visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected manifestation of a neglected disease: report of three cases and systematic review of literature / Rinaldi F.; Giache S.; Spinicci M.; Corsi P.; Ambu S.; Gianfaldoni G.; Rigacci L.; Arena U.; Bartoloni A.; Zammarchi L.. - In: INFECTION. - ISSN 0300-8126. - ELETTRONICO. - (2019), pp. 1-12. [10.1007/s15010-019-01279-5]

Focal spleen lesions in visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected manifestation of a neglected disease: report of three cases and systematic review of literature

Rinaldi F.;Giache S.;Spinicci M.;Ambu S.;Gianfaldoni G.;Rigacci L.;Arena U.;Bartoloni A.;Zammarchi L.
2019

Abstract

Background The Mediterranean area is endemic for the zoonotic form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum, a species which has been recently associated with unexpected epidemiological and clinical features. Method We report the result of a systematic review of the literature on VL unusually presenting with spleen focal lesions, including three previously unpublished cases. Results A total of 28 cases of VL with multiple spleen focal lesions were retrieved. Twenty-six (93%) were acquired in the Mediterranean area, where L. infantum is endemic. Thirteen cases were diagnosed in children, and the remaining 15 cases in middle-aged adults, of whom 9 were immunosuppressed. Four patients (14%) underwent diagnostic splenectomy, while the diagnosis was confirmed by less invasive techniques in the remaining patients. The most common radiological patterns were: multiple subcentimetric or centimetric spleen lesions (size≤1 cm in 14 of 19 cases, 74%), hypoechoic at ultrasonography (25 of 26 cases, 99%) and hypodense at CT scan (9 of 10 cases, 90%). PET-CT (available for four patients) showed an intense FDG spleen uptake. MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, available for two and one cases each, showed complex patterns. Conclusions VL must be added to the list of possible differential diagnosis of spleen focal lesions and health care provider awareness about this condition will avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.
2019
1
12
Rinaldi F.; Giache S.; Spinicci M.; Corsi P.; Ambu S.; Gianfaldoni G.; Rigacci L.; Arena U.; Bartoloni A.; Zammarchi L.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1164292
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