An extensive field campaign was carried out in Florence (Tuscany) to investigate the PM2.5 composition and to identify its sources. The scientific objective of this study is providing a reliable source apportionment, which is mandatory for the application of effective mitigation actions. Particulate matter (PM) was collected for one year, simultaneously in a traffic site, in an urban background, and in a regional background site. While the use of two filter types (quartz and Teflon) allowed obtaining a comprehensive chemical characterization (elemental and organic carbon, ions, elements) by the application of different analytical techniques, the location of the three sampling sites allowed getting a better separation among local, urban, regional and transboundary sources. During shorter periods, the aerosol was also collected by means of a streaker sampler and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis of these samples allowed the assessment of hourly resolution elemental time trends. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) identified seven main sources: traffic, biomass burning, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrates, urban dust, Saharan dust and marine aerosol. Traffic mass concentration contributions were found to be strong only at the traffic site (8 μg m-3, 33% of PM2.5). Biomass burning turned out to be an important PM2.5 source in Florence (4 μg m-3), with very similar weights in both city sites while at the regional background site its weight was negligible. Secondary sulphate is an important PM2.5 source on a regional scale, with comparable values in all three sites (3.5 μg m-3). On average, the contribution of the "natural" components (e.g., mineral dust and marine aerosols) to PM2.5 is moderate (1 μg m-3) except during Saharan dust intrusions where this contribution is higher (detected simultaneously in all three sites). High-time resolution data confirmed and reinforced these results.

Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Florence (Italy) by PMF analysis of aerosol composition records / Nava S.; Calzolai G.; Chiari M.; Giannoni M.; Giardi F.; Becagli S.; Severi M.; Traversi R.; Lucarelli F.. - In: ATMOSPHERE. - ISSN 2073-4433. - ELETTRONICO. - 11:(2020), pp. 0-0. [10.3390/ATMOS11050484]

Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Florence (Italy) by PMF analysis of aerosol composition records

Nava S.;Calzolai G.;Chiari M.;Giannoni M.;Giardi F.;Becagli S.;Severi M.;Traversi R.;Lucarelli F.
2020

Abstract

An extensive field campaign was carried out in Florence (Tuscany) to investigate the PM2.5 composition and to identify its sources. The scientific objective of this study is providing a reliable source apportionment, which is mandatory for the application of effective mitigation actions. Particulate matter (PM) was collected for one year, simultaneously in a traffic site, in an urban background, and in a regional background site. While the use of two filter types (quartz and Teflon) allowed obtaining a comprehensive chemical characterization (elemental and organic carbon, ions, elements) by the application of different analytical techniques, the location of the three sampling sites allowed getting a better separation among local, urban, regional and transboundary sources. During shorter periods, the aerosol was also collected by means of a streaker sampler and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis of these samples allowed the assessment of hourly resolution elemental time trends. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) identified seven main sources: traffic, biomass burning, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrates, urban dust, Saharan dust and marine aerosol. Traffic mass concentration contributions were found to be strong only at the traffic site (8 μg m-3, 33% of PM2.5). Biomass burning turned out to be an important PM2.5 source in Florence (4 μg m-3), with very similar weights in both city sites while at the regional background site its weight was negligible. Secondary sulphate is an important PM2.5 source on a regional scale, with comparable values in all three sites (3.5 μg m-3). On average, the contribution of the "natural" components (e.g., mineral dust and marine aerosols) to PM2.5 is moderate (1 μg m-3) except during Saharan dust intrusions where this contribution is higher (detected simultaneously in all three sites). High-time resolution data confirmed and reinforced these results.
2020
11
0
0
Goal 13: Climate action
Nava S.; Calzolai G.; Chiari M.; Giannoni M.; Giardi F.; Becagli S.; Severi M.; Traversi R.; Lucarelli F.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1211715
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