Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with a putative neoplastic and inflammatory nature. The disease is driven by mutations in proto-oncogenes such as BRAF and MEK, while immune-mediated mechanisms contribute to disease development and progression. The clinical presentation of ECD is highly heterogeneous, ranging from smouldering unifocal forms to multiorgan life-threatening disease. Almost any organ can be involved, but the most common lesions include long-bone involvement, retroperitoneal fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, pericardial and myocardial infiltration, CNS, retro-orbital, and large-vessel involvement. These manifestations may mimic those of neoplastic and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Overlap with these conditions represents an emerging challenge for the clinician. A variety of treatments are efficacious for ECD, targeting both the MAPK-pathway and the immune-mediated pathomechanisms. The traditional approach is based on immunomodulatory agents (interferon-α), but recent alternatives—including anti-cytokine therapies (IL1- and TNFα-blockers) and immunosuppressants (mTOR-inhibitors)—showed promising results. However, since the detection of MAPK pathway activation in most patients and the dramatic efficacy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, these targeted treatments represent the first-line approach in patients with severe disease forms. High rates of radiologic responses do not often mean clinical remission, especially for CNS involvement, which often results in chronic disability. This review will outline the main clinical features of ECD, with emphasis on the emerging challenges in pathogenesis and management, and on the role of recent targeted approaches.

Erdheim–Chester disease: a rapidly evolving disease model / Pegoraro F.; Papo M.; Maniscalco V.; Charlotte F.; Haroche J.; Vaglio A.. - In: LEUKEMIA. - ISSN 0887-6924. - ELETTRONICO. - 34:(2020), pp. 2840-2857. [10.1038/s41375-020-0944-4]

Erdheim–Chester disease: a rapidly evolving disease model

Pegoraro F.;Maniscalco V.;Vaglio A.
2020

Abstract

Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with a putative neoplastic and inflammatory nature. The disease is driven by mutations in proto-oncogenes such as BRAF and MEK, while immune-mediated mechanisms contribute to disease development and progression. The clinical presentation of ECD is highly heterogeneous, ranging from smouldering unifocal forms to multiorgan life-threatening disease. Almost any organ can be involved, but the most common lesions include long-bone involvement, retroperitoneal fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, pericardial and myocardial infiltration, CNS, retro-orbital, and large-vessel involvement. These manifestations may mimic those of neoplastic and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Overlap with these conditions represents an emerging challenge for the clinician. A variety of treatments are efficacious for ECD, targeting both the MAPK-pathway and the immune-mediated pathomechanisms. The traditional approach is based on immunomodulatory agents (interferon-α), but recent alternatives—including anti-cytokine therapies (IL1- and TNFα-blockers) and immunosuppressants (mTOR-inhibitors)—showed promising results. However, since the detection of MAPK pathway activation in most patients and the dramatic efficacy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, these targeted treatments represent the first-line approach in patients with severe disease forms. High rates of radiologic responses do not often mean clinical remission, especially for CNS involvement, which often results in chronic disability. This review will outline the main clinical features of ECD, with emphasis on the emerging challenges in pathogenesis and management, and on the role of recent targeted approaches.
2020
34
2840
2857
Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Pegoraro F.; Papo M.; Maniscalco V.; Charlotte F.; Haroche J.; Vaglio A.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1217407
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