Developing drugs for the central nervous system (CNS) requires fine chemical modifications, as a strict balance between size and lipophilicity is necessary to improve the permeability through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this context, morpholine and its analogues represent valuable heterocycles, due to their conformational and physicochemical properties. In fact, the presence of a weak basic nitrogen atom and of an oxygen atom at the opposite position provides a peculiar pKa value and a flexible conformation to the ring, thus allowing it to take part in several lipophilic−hydrophilic interactions, and to improve blood solubility and brain permeability of the overall structure. In CNS-active compounds, morpholines are used (1) to enhance the potency through molecular interactions, (2) to act as a scaffold directing the appendages in the correct position, and (3) to modulate pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties. In this perspective, selected morpholine-containing CNS drug candidates are discussed to reveal the active pharmacophores accountable for the (1) modulation of receptors involved in mood disorders and pain, (2) bioactivity toward enzymes and receptors responsible for neurodegenerative diseases, and (3) inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathology of CNS tumors. The medicinal chemistry/pharmacological activity of morpholine derivatives is discussed, in the effort to highlight the importance of morpholine ring interactions in the active site of different targets, particularly reporting binding features retrieved from PDB data, when available.

Occurrence of morpholine in central nervous system drug discovery / Trabocchi A.; Lenci E.; Calugi L.. - In: ACS CHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 1948-7193. - STAMPA. - 12(2021), pp. 378-390-390. [10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00729]

Occurrence of morpholine in central nervous system drug discovery

Trabocchi A.
;
Lenci E.;Calugi L.
2021

Abstract

Developing drugs for the central nervous system (CNS) requires fine chemical modifications, as a strict balance between size and lipophilicity is necessary to improve the permeability through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this context, morpholine and its analogues represent valuable heterocycles, due to their conformational and physicochemical properties. In fact, the presence of a weak basic nitrogen atom and of an oxygen atom at the opposite position provides a peculiar pKa value and a flexible conformation to the ring, thus allowing it to take part in several lipophilic−hydrophilic interactions, and to improve blood solubility and brain permeability of the overall structure. In CNS-active compounds, morpholines are used (1) to enhance the potency through molecular interactions, (2) to act as a scaffold directing the appendages in the correct position, and (3) to modulate pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties. In this perspective, selected morpholine-containing CNS drug candidates are discussed to reveal the active pharmacophores accountable for the (1) modulation of receptors involved in mood disorders and pain, (2) bioactivity toward enzymes and receptors responsible for neurodegenerative diseases, and (3) inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathology of CNS tumors. The medicinal chemistry/pharmacological activity of morpholine derivatives is discussed, in the effort to highlight the importance of morpholine ring interactions in the active site of different targets, particularly reporting binding features retrieved from PDB data, when available.
12
378-390
390
Trabocchi A.; Lenci E.; Calugi L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1226092
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