Background: Over the last few years, the gender binary has been questioned, highlighting the existence of gender diverse people, who identify as neither (exclusively) male nor female. Aim: The present study evaluated the possible differences in terms of psychological wellbeing between binary and gender diverse individuals, as well as the role of perceived social acceptance and religious fundamentalism as possible mediators of psychopathology in gender diverse people. Furthermore, the diversity of gender-affirming hormonal treatment requests according to gender identification was investigated. Methods: A sample of 563 transgender people aged 18-70 was enrolled (n = 264 assigned female at birth, AFAB and n = 299 assigned male at birth, AMAB), all individuals referring to several Italian gender clinics. A subdivision of the study population based on the gender identity visual analog scale (GI-VAS) median was performed, in order to distinguish between gender diverse and binary transgender individuals. Moreover, a linear regression analysis was performed entering logarithmically transformed GI-VAS (Log GI-VAS) into the models with psychometric scales. Outcomes: Psychometric and sociodemographic data, as well as information regarding requests for gender-affirming treatments, were extrapolated from the clinical interviews conducted during the first referral. Results: Gender diverse individuals showed significantly less intense gender dysphoria and higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to binary ones; accordingly, a less binary gender identity correlated with higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower levels of gender dysphoria. The depressive symptomatology in gender diverse people was partially mediated by perceived discrimination and humiliation. Moreover, gender diverse AMAB people sought a non-standard hormonal treatment more often than their binary counterpart. Clinical implications: The present study highlights the importance for transgender health professionals, when planning gender-affirming hormonal treatments, to offer flexible interventions, tailored on the patient's needs and goals. Strengths & limitations: Strengths included exploring whether and how perceived discrimination may affect mental health in gender diverse people. Limitations included the enrolled sample of people referring to different gender clinics, which is not fully representative of the transgender population. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of evaluating each individual's unique health care needs, exploring each single request and its underlying reasons.

Psychological Wellbeing and Perceived Social Acceptance in Gender Diverse Individuals / Alessia Romani, Francesca Mazzoli, Jiska Ristori, Carlotta Cocchetti, Emanuele Cassioli, Giovanni Castellini, Maddalena Mosconi, Maria Cristina Meriggiola, Sara Gualdi, Guido Giovanardi, Vittorio Lingiardi, Linda Vignozzi, Mario Maggi, Alessandra D Fisher. - In: JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1743-6095. - STAMPA. - 18:(2021), pp. 1933-1944. [10.1016/j.jsxm.2021.08.012]

Psychological Wellbeing and Perceived Social Acceptance in Gender Diverse Individuals

Alessia Romani;Francesca Mazzoli;Jiska Ristori;Carlotta Cocchetti;Emanuele Cassioli;Giovanni Castellini;Linda Vignozzi;Mario Maggi;Alessandra D Fisher
2021

Abstract

Background: Over the last few years, the gender binary has been questioned, highlighting the existence of gender diverse people, who identify as neither (exclusively) male nor female. Aim: The present study evaluated the possible differences in terms of psychological wellbeing between binary and gender diverse individuals, as well as the role of perceived social acceptance and religious fundamentalism as possible mediators of psychopathology in gender diverse people. Furthermore, the diversity of gender-affirming hormonal treatment requests according to gender identification was investigated. Methods: A sample of 563 transgender people aged 18-70 was enrolled (n = 264 assigned female at birth, AFAB and n = 299 assigned male at birth, AMAB), all individuals referring to several Italian gender clinics. A subdivision of the study population based on the gender identity visual analog scale (GI-VAS) median was performed, in order to distinguish between gender diverse and binary transgender individuals. Moreover, a linear regression analysis was performed entering logarithmically transformed GI-VAS (Log GI-VAS) into the models with psychometric scales. Outcomes: Psychometric and sociodemographic data, as well as information regarding requests for gender-affirming treatments, were extrapolated from the clinical interviews conducted during the first referral. Results: Gender diverse individuals showed significantly less intense gender dysphoria and higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to binary ones; accordingly, a less binary gender identity correlated with higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower levels of gender dysphoria. The depressive symptomatology in gender diverse people was partially mediated by perceived discrimination and humiliation. Moreover, gender diverse AMAB people sought a non-standard hormonal treatment more often than their binary counterpart. Clinical implications: The present study highlights the importance for transgender health professionals, when planning gender-affirming hormonal treatments, to offer flexible interventions, tailored on the patient's needs and goals. Strengths & limitations: Strengths included exploring whether and how perceived discrimination may affect mental health in gender diverse people. Limitations included the enrolled sample of people referring to different gender clinics, which is not fully representative of the transgender population. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of evaluating each individual's unique health care needs, exploring each single request and its underlying reasons.
2021
18
1933
1944
Goal 3: Good health and well-being for people
Alessia Romani, Francesca Mazzoli, Jiska Ristori, Carlotta Cocchetti, Emanuele Cassioli, Giovanni Castellini, Maddalena Mosconi, Maria Cristina Meriggiola, Sara Gualdi, Guido Giovanardi, Vittorio Lingiardi, Linda Vignozzi, Mario Maggi, Alessandra D Fisher
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1256960
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