The recent regulations, which impose limits on single use plastics and packaging, are encouraging the development of bioplastics market. Some bioplastics are labelled as compostable with the organic waste according to a specific certification (EN 13432), however the conditions of industrial composting plants are generally less favourable than the standard test conditions. Aiming at studying the effective degradation of marketable bioplastic products under composting, the current research stresses novel elements which can strongly influence bioplastics degradation: the simulation of industrial composting conditions and the thickness of bioplastic products, ranging between 50 and 500 µm. The research approaches these critical aspects simulating a composting test of 20 days of thermophilic phase followed by 40 days of maturation phase, on starch-based polymer Mater-Bi® (MB), polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), polylactic acid (PLA) of different thickness. Conventional low density polyethylene (LDPE) was introduced as negative control. An overall study with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), ThermoGravimetric Analysis (TGA), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and visual inspections was applied. Results highlighted that MB film presented the highest degradation rate, 45 ± 4.7% in terms of weight loss. Both MB and PBAT were subjected to physico-chemical features change, while LDPE presented slight degradation signs. The most critical observations have been done for PLA, which is strongly influenced both by thickness and thermophilic phase duration, shorter than the EN 13432 conditions.

Degradation of Film and Rigid Bioplastics During the Thermophilic Phase and the Maturation Phase of Simulated Composting / Ruggero F.; Onderwater R.C.A.; Carretti E.; Roosa S.; Benali S.; Raquez J.-M.; Gori R.; Lubello C.; Wattiez R.. - In: JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 1566-2543. - ELETTRONICO. - 29:(2021), pp. 3015-3028. [10.1007/s10924-021-02098-2]

Degradation of Film and Rigid Bioplastics During the Thermophilic Phase and the Maturation Phase of Simulated Composting

Ruggero F.
Investigation
;
Carretti E.
Investigation
;
Gori R.
Supervision
;
Lubello C.
Supervision
;
2021

Abstract

The recent regulations, which impose limits on single use plastics and packaging, are encouraging the development of bioplastics market. Some bioplastics are labelled as compostable with the organic waste according to a specific certification (EN 13432), however the conditions of industrial composting plants are generally less favourable than the standard test conditions. Aiming at studying the effective degradation of marketable bioplastic products under composting, the current research stresses novel elements which can strongly influence bioplastics degradation: the simulation of industrial composting conditions and the thickness of bioplastic products, ranging between 50 and 500 µm. The research approaches these critical aspects simulating a composting test of 20 days of thermophilic phase followed by 40 days of maturation phase, on starch-based polymer Mater-Bi® (MB), polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), polylactic acid (PLA) of different thickness. Conventional low density polyethylene (LDPE) was introduced as negative control. An overall study with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), ThermoGravimetric Analysis (TGA), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and visual inspections was applied. Results highlighted that MB film presented the highest degradation rate, 45 ± 4.7% in terms of weight loss. Both MB and PBAT were subjected to physico-chemical features change, while LDPE presented slight degradation signs. The most critical observations have been done for PLA, which is strongly influenced both by thickness and thermophilic phase duration, shorter than the EN 13432 conditions.
2021
29
3015
3028
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
Ruggero F.; Onderwater R.C.A.; Carretti E.; Roosa S.; Benali S.; Raquez J.-M.; Gori R.; Lubello C.; Wattiez R.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Rigid-and-film-bioplastics-degradation-under-suboptimal-composting-conditions-A-kinetic-studyWaste-Management-and-Research.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Pdf editoriale (Version of record)
Licenza: Open Access
Dimensione 1.56 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.56 MB Adobe PDF

I documenti in FLORE sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1256988
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 59
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 52
social impact