Mediterranean plants are particularly threatened by the exacerbation of prolonged periods of summer drought and increasing concentrations of ground-level ozone (O-3). The aims of the present study were to (i) test if selected markers (i.e., reactive oxygen species, ROS; malondialdehyde, MDA; photosynthetic pigments) are able to discriminate the oxidative pressure due to single and combined stress conditions, and (ii) elucidate the physiochemical adjustments adopted by Phillyrea angustifolia (evergreen woody species representative of the maquis, also known as narrow-leaved mock privet) to perceive and counter to drought and/or O-3. Plants were grown from May to October under the combination of two levels of water irrigation [i.e., well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] and three levels of O-3 [i.e., 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times the ambient air concentrations, i.e. AA (current O-3 scenario), 1.5 x AA and 2.0 x AA (future O-3 scenarios), respectively], using a new-generation O-3 Free Air Controlled Exposure (FACE) system. Overall, this species appeared relatively sensitive to drought (e.g., net CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance significantly decreased, as well as total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents), and tolerant to O-3 (e.g., as confirmed by the absence of visible foliar injury, the unchanged values of total carotenoids, and the detrimental effects on stomatal conductance, total chlorophylls and terpene emission only under elevated O-3 concentrations). The combination of both stressors led to harsher oxidative stress. Only when evaluated together (i.e., combining the information provided by the analysis of each stress marker), ROS, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, were suitable stress markers to discriminate the differential oxidative stress induced by drought and increasing O-3 concentrations applied singly or in combination: (i) all these stress markers were affected under drought per se; (ii) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and MDA increased under O-3 per se, following the gradient of O-3 concentrations (H2O2: about 2- and 4-fold higher; MDA: +22 and + 91%; in 1.5 x AA_WW and 2.0 x AA_WW, respectively); (iii) joining together the ROS it was possible to report harsher effects under 2.0 x AA_WS and 1.5 x AA_WS (both anion superoxide and H2O2 increased) than under 2.0 x AA_WW (only H2O2 increased); and (iv) MDA showed harsher effects under 2.0 x AA_WS than under 1.5 x AA_WS (increased by 49 and 18%, respectively). Plants activated physiological and biochemical adjustments in order to partially avoid (e.g., stomatal closure) and tolerate (e.g., increased terpene emission) the effects of drought when combined with increasing O-3 concentrations, suggesting that the water use strategy (isohydric) and the sclerophyllous habit can further increase the plant tolerance to environmental constraints in the Mediterranean area.

Stress markers and physiochemical responses of the Mediterranean shrub Phillyrea angustifolia under current and future drought and ozone scenarios / Pellegrini, Elisa; Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Neri, Luisa; Baraldi, Rita; Carrari, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo. - In: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 0013-9351. - ELETTRONICO. - 201:(2021), pp. 111615-111624. [10.1016/j.envres.2021.111615]

Stress markers and physiochemical responses of the Mediterranean shrub Phillyrea angustifolia under current and future drought and ozone scenarios

Carrari, Elisa;
2021

Abstract

Mediterranean plants are particularly threatened by the exacerbation of prolonged periods of summer drought and increasing concentrations of ground-level ozone (O-3). The aims of the present study were to (i) test if selected markers (i.e., reactive oxygen species, ROS; malondialdehyde, MDA; photosynthetic pigments) are able to discriminate the oxidative pressure due to single and combined stress conditions, and (ii) elucidate the physiochemical adjustments adopted by Phillyrea angustifolia (evergreen woody species representative of the maquis, also known as narrow-leaved mock privet) to perceive and counter to drought and/or O-3. Plants were grown from May to October under the combination of two levels of water irrigation [i.e., well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] and three levels of O-3 [i.e., 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times the ambient air concentrations, i.e. AA (current O-3 scenario), 1.5 x AA and 2.0 x AA (future O-3 scenarios), respectively], using a new-generation O-3 Free Air Controlled Exposure (FACE) system. Overall, this species appeared relatively sensitive to drought (e.g., net CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance significantly decreased, as well as total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents), and tolerant to O-3 (e.g., as confirmed by the absence of visible foliar injury, the unchanged values of total carotenoids, and the detrimental effects on stomatal conductance, total chlorophylls and terpene emission only under elevated O-3 concentrations). The combination of both stressors led to harsher oxidative stress. Only when evaluated together (i.e., combining the information provided by the analysis of each stress marker), ROS, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, were suitable stress markers to discriminate the differential oxidative stress induced by drought and increasing O-3 concentrations applied singly or in combination: (i) all these stress markers were affected under drought per se; (ii) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and MDA increased under O-3 per se, following the gradient of O-3 concentrations (H2O2: about 2- and 4-fold higher; MDA: +22 and + 91%; in 1.5 x AA_WW and 2.0 x AA_WW, respectively); (iii) joining together the ROS it was possible to report harsher effects under 2.0 x AA_WS and 1.5 x AA_WS (both anion superoxide and H2O2 increased) than under 2.0 x AA_WW (only H2O2 increased); and (iv) MDA showed harsher effects under 2.0 x AA_WS than under 1.5 x AA_WS (increased by 49 and 18%, respectively). Plants activated physiological and biochemical adjustments in order to partially avoid (e.g., stomatal closure) and tolerate (e.g., increased terpene emission) the effects of drought when combined with increasing O-3 concentrations, suggesting that the water use strategy (isohydric) and the sclerophyllous habit can further increase the plant tolerance to environmental constraints in the Mediterranean area.
201
111615
111624
Pellegrini, Elisa; Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Neri, Luisa; Baraldi, Rita; Carrari, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1282045
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