Metal-additive manufacturing (AM), particularly the powder-bed fusion (PBF) technique, is undergoing a transition from the short-run production of components to higher-volume manufacturing. The industry’s increased production efficiency is paired with a growing awareness of the risks related to the inhalation of very fine metal powders during PBF and AM processes, and there is a pressing need for a ready-to-use approach to assess the risks and the occupational exposure to these very final metal powders. This article presents a study conducted in an AM facility, which was conducted with the aim to propose a solution to monitor incidental airborne particle emissions during metal AM by setting up an analytical network for a tailored approach to risk assessment. Quantitative data about the respirable and inhalable particle and metal content were obtained by gravimetric and ICP-MS analyses. In addition, the concentrations of airborne particles (10–300 nm) were investigated using a direct reading instrument. A qualitative approach for risk assessment was fulfilled using control banding Nanotool v2.0. The results show that the operations in the AM facility are in line with exposure limit levels for both micron-sized and nano-sized particles. The particulate observed in the working area contains metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel; thus, biological monitoring is recommended. To manage the risk level observed for all of the tasks during the AM process, containment and the supervision of an occupational safety expert are recommended to manage the risk. This study represents a useful tool that can be used to carry out a static evaluation of the risk and exposure to potentially harmful very fine metal powders in AM; however, due to the continuous innovations in this field, a dynamic approach could represent an interesting future perspective for occupational safety.

A Qualitative and Quantitative Occupational Exposure Risk Assessment to Hazardous Substances during Powder-Bed Fusion Processes in Metal-Additive Manufacturing / Dugheri S.; Cappelli G.; Trevisani L.; Kemble S.; Paone F.; Rigacci M.; Bucaletti E.; Squillaci D.; Mucci N.; Arcangeli G.. - In: SAFETY. - ISSN 2313-576X. - ELETTRONICO. - 8:(2022), pp. 32.0-32.0. [10.3390/safety8020032]

A Qualitative and Quantitative Occupational Exposure Risk Assessment to Hazardous Substances during Powder-Bed Fusion Processes in Metal-Additive Manufacturing

Dugheri S.;Cappelli G.;Trevisani L.;Bucaletti E.;Squillaci D.;Mucci N.;Arcangeli G.
2022

Abstract

Metal-additive manufacturing (AM), particularly the powder-bed fusion (PBF) technique, is undergoing a transition from the short-run production of components to higher-volume manufacturing. The industry’s increased production efficiency is paired with a growing awareness of the risks related to the inhalation of very fine metal powders during PBF and AM processes, and there is a pressing need for a ready-to-use approach to assess the risks and the occupational exposure to these very final metal powders. This article presents a study conducted in an AM facility, which was conducted with the aim to propose a solution to monitor incidental airborne particle emissions during metal AM by setting up an analytical network for a tailored approach to risk assessment. Quantitative data about the respirable and inhalable particle and metal content were obtained by gravimetric and ICP-MS analyses. In addition, the concentrations of airborne particles (10–300 nm) were investigated using a direct reading instrument. A qualitative approach for risk assessment was fulfilled using control banding Nanotool v2.0. The results show that the operations in the AM facility are in line with exposure limit levels for both micron-sized and nano-sized particles. The particulate observed in the working area contains metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel; thus, biological monitoring is recommended. To manage the risk level observed for all of the tasks during the AM process, containment and the supervision of an occupational safety expert are recommended to manage the risk. This study represents a useful tool that can be used to carry out a static evaluation of the risk and exposure to potentially harmful very fine metal powders in AM; however, due to the continuous innovations in this field, a dynamic approach could represent an interesting future perspective for occupational safety.
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Dugheri S.; Cappelli G.; Trevisani L.; Kemble S.; Paone F.; Rigacci M.; Bucaletti E.; Squillaci D.; Mucci N.; Arcangeli G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1284443
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