Background and Purpose Waning immunity and the surge of SARS-CoV-2 variants are responsible for breakthrough infections, i.e., infections in fully vaccinated individuals. Although the majority of vaccinated infected subjects report mild or no symptoms, some others require hospitalization. The clinical and immunological features of vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently unknown. Methods Twenty-nine unvaccinated and 36 vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients were prospectively enrolled and clinical and laboratory data were gathered. Immunophenotyping of leukocytes' subsets, T and B cell SARS-CoV-2-specific responses were evaluated via flow cytometry. Anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies were measured via ELISA. Results Despite vaccinated patients were older and with more comorbidities, unvaccinated subjects showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers, more severe disease, and increased mortality rate. Accordingly, they presented significant alterations in the circulating leukocyte composition, typical of severe COVID-19. Vaccinated patients displayed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and Spike-specific B cells. Of all participants, survivors showed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and Spike-specific CD4+ T cells than non-survivors. At hospital admission, 6 out of 65 patients (9.2%) displayed high serum concentrations of autoantibodies targeting IFN-alpha. Remarkably, 3 were unvaccinated and eventually died, while the other 3 were vaccinated and survived. Conclusion Despite more severe pre-existing clinical conditions, vaccinated patients have good outcome. A rapid activation of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is fundamental for the resolution of the infection. Therefore, prior immunization through vaccination provides a significant contribution to prevention of disease worsening and can even overcome the presence of high-risk factors (i.e., older age, comorbidities, anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies).

Clinical and Immunological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections in Vaccinated Individuals Requiring Hospitalization / Lamacchia, Giulia; Mazzoni, Alessio; Spinicci, Michele; Vanni, Anna; Salvati, Lorenzo; Peruzzi, Benedetta; Bencini, Sara; Capone, Manuela; Carnasciali, Alberto; Farahvachi, Parham; Rocca, Arianna; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Graziani, Lucia; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Mencarini, Jessica; Colao, Maria Grazia; Caporale, Roberto; Liotta, Francesco; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1573-2592. - ELETTRONICO. - (2022), pp. 0-0. [10.1007/s10875-022-01325-2]

Clinical and Immunological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections in Vaccinated Individuals Requiring Hospitalization

Lamacchia, Giulia;Mazzoni, Alessio;Spinicci, Michele;Vanni, Anna;Salvati, Lorenzo;Peruzzi, Benedetta;Capone, Manuela;Carnasciali, Alberto;Farahvachi, Parham;Rocca, Arianna;Kiros, Seble Tekle;Graziani, Lucia;Zammarchi, Lorenzo;Mencarini, Jessica;Caporale, Roberto;Liotta, Francesco;Cosmi, Lorenzo;Rossolini, Gian Maria;Bartoloni, Alessandro;Maggi, Laura;Annunziato, Francesco
2022

Abstract

Background and Purpose Waning immunity and the surge of SARS-CoV-2 variants are responsible for breakthrough infections, i.e., infections in fully vaccinated individuals. Although the majority of vaccinated infected subjects report mild or no symptoms, some others require hospitalization. The clinical and immunological features of vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently unknown. Methods Twenty-nine unvaccinated and 36 vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients were prospectively enrolled and clinical and laboratory data were gathered. Immunophenotyping of leukocytes' subsets, T and B cell SARS-CoV-2-specific responses were evaluated via flow cytometry. Anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies were measured via ELISA. Results Despite vaccinated patients were older and with more comorbidities, unvaccinated subjects showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers, more severe disease, and increased mortality rate. Accordingly, they presented significant alterations in the circulating leukocyte composition, typical of severe COVID-19. Vaccinated patients displayed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and Spike-specific B cells. Of all participants, survivors showed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and Spike-specific CD4+ T cells than non-survivors. At hospital admission, 6 out of 65 patients (9.2%) displayed high serum concentrations of autoantibodies targeting IFN-alpha. Remarkably, 3 were unvaccinated and eventually died, while the other 3 were vaccinated and survived. Conclusion Despite more severe pre-existing clinical conditions, vaccinated patients have good outcome. A rapid activation of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is fundamental for the resolution of the infection. Therefore, prior immunization through vaccination provides a significant contribution to prevention of disease worsening and can even overcome the presence of high-risk factors (i.e., older age, comorbidities, anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies).
2022
0
0
Lamacchia, Giulia; Mazzoni, Alessio; Spinicci, Michele; Vanni, Anna; Salvati, Lorenzo; Peruzzi, Benedetta; Bencini, Sara; Capone, Manuela; Carnasciali, Alberto; Farahvachi, Parham; Rocca, Arianna; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Graziani, Lucia; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Mencarini, Jessica; Colao, Maria Grazia; Caporale, Roberto; Liotta, Francesco; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1284553
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