Purpose SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised hosts is challenging, and prolonged viral shedding can be a common complication in these patients. We describe the clinical, immunological, and virological course of a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who developed the status of long-term asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carrier for more than 7 months.Methods Over the study period, the patient underwent 20 RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swabs. In addition, viral cultures and genetic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. As for immunological assessment, serological and specific T-cell testing was provided at different time points.Results Despite the patient showing a deep drug-induced B and T adaptive immunity impairment, he did not experience COVID-19 progression to severe complications, and the infection remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period, but he was not able to achieve viral clearance for more than 7 months. The infection was finally cleared by SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibody treatment, after that remdesivir and convalescent plasma failed in this scope. The genetic investigations evidenced that the infection was sustained by multiple viral subpopulations that had apparently evolved intra-host during the infection.Conclusion Our case suggests that people with highly impaired B- and T-cell adaptive immunity can prevent COVID-19 progression to severe complications, but they may not be able to clear SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunocompromised hosts with a long-term infection may play a role in the emergence of viral variants.

Long-term SARS-CoV-2 Asymptomatic Carriage in an Immunocompromised Host: Clinical, Immunological, and Virological Implications / Spinicci, Michele; Mazzoni, Alessio; Coppi, Marco; Antonelli, Alberto; Salvati, Lorenzo; Maggi, Laura; Basile, Gregorio; Graziani, Lucia; Di Lauria, Nicoletta; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Beccastrini, Enrico; Saccardi, Riccardo; Angileri, Manuela; Cecchi, Michele; Cusi, Maria Grazia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Annunziato, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Parronchi, Paola. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1573-2592. - ELETTRONICO. - (2022), pp. 0-0. [10.1007/s10875-022-01313-6]

Long-term SARS-CoV-2 Asymptomatic Carriage in an Immunocompromised Host: Clinical, Immunological, and Virological Implications

Spinicci, Michele;Mazzoni, Alessio;Coppi, Marco;Antonelli, Alberto;Salvati, Lorenzo;Maggi, Laura;Basile, Gregorio;Graziani, Lucia;Di Lauria, Nicoletta;Di Pilato, Vincenzo;Kiros, Seble Tekle;Beccastrini, Enrico;Saccardi, Riccardo;Rossolini, Gian Maria;Annunziato, Francesco;Bartoloni, Alessandro;Parronchi, Paola
2022

Abstract

Purpose SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised hosts is challenging, and prolonged viral shedding can be a common complication in these patients. We describe the clinical, immunological, and virological course of a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who developed the status of long-term asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carrier for more than 7 months.Methods Over the study period, the patient underwent 20 RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swabs. In addition, viral cultures and genetic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. As for immunological assessment, serological and specific T-cell testing was provided at different time points.Results Despite the patient showing a deep drug-induced B and T adaptive immunity impairment, he did not experience COVID-19 progression to severe complications, and the infection remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period, but he was not able to achieve viral clearance for more than 7 months. The infection was finally cleared by SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibody treatment, after that remdesivir and convalescent plasma failed in this scope. The genetic investigations evidenced that the infection was sustained by multiple viral subpopulations that had apparently evolved intra-host during the infection.Conclusion Our case suggests that people with highly impaired B- and T-cell adaptive immunity can prevent COVID-19 progression to severe complications, but they may not be able to clear SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunocompromised hosts with a long-term infection may play a role in the emergence of viral variants.
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Spinicci, Michele; Mazzoni, Alessio; Coppi, Marco; Antonelli, Alberto; Salvati, Lorenzo; Maggi, Laura; Basile, Gregorio; Graziani, Lucia; Di Lauria, Nicoletta; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Beccastrini, Enrico; Saccardi, Riccardo; Angileri, Manuela; Cecchi, Michele; Cusi, Maria Grazia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Annunziato, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Parronchi, Paola
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1284555
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