Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into fibrillar aggregates. Soluble misfolded oligomers formed during the aggregation process, or released by mature fibrils, play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes through their interactions with neuronal membranes. However, the determinants of the cytotoxicity of these oligomers are still unclear. Here we used liposomes and toxic and nontoxic oligomers formed by the same protein to measure quantitatively the affinity of the two oligomeric species for lipid membranes. To this aim, we quantified the perturbation to the lipid membranes caused by the two oligomers by using the fluorescence quenching of two probes embedded in the polar and apolar regions of the lipid membranes and a well-defined protein-oligomer binding assay using fluorescently labeled oligomers to determine the Stern-Volmer and dissociation constants, respectively. With both approaches, we found that the toxic oligomers have a membrane affinity 20-25 times higher than that of nontoxic oligomers. Circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, and FRET indicated that neither oligomer type changes its structure upon membrane interaction. Using liposomes enriched with trodusquemine, a potential small molecule drug known to penetrate lipid membranes and make them refractory to toxic oligomers, we found that the membrane affinity of the oligomers was remarkably lower. At protective concentrations of the small molecule, the binding of the oligomers to the lipid membranes was fully prevented. Furthermore, the affinity of the toxic oligomers for the lipid membranes was found to increase and slightly decrease with GM1 ganglioside and cholesterol content, respectively, indicating that physicochemical properties of lipid membranes modulate their affinity for misfolded oligomeric species.

Quantitative Measurement of the Affinity of Toxic and Nontoxic Misfolded Protein Oligomers for Lipid Bilayers and of its Modulation by Lipid Composition and Trodusquemine / Errico, Silvia; Ramshini, Hassan; Capitini, Claudia; Canale, Claudio; Spaziano, Martina; Barbut, Denise; Calamai, Martino; Zasloff, Michael; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Vendruscolo, Michele; Chiti, Fabrizio. - In: ACS CHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 1948-7193. - STAMPA. - 12:(2021), pp. 3189-3202. [10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00327]

Quantitative Measurement of the Affinity of Toxic and Nontoxic Misfolded Protein Oligomers for Lipid Bilayers and of its Modulation by Lipid Composition and Trodusquemine

Errico, Silvia;Capitini, Claudia;Spaziano, Martina;Calamai, Martino;Chiti, Fabrizio
2021

Abstract

Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into fibrillar aggregates. Soluble misfolded oligomers formed during the aggregation process, or released by mature fibrils, play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes through their interactions with neuronal membranes. However, the determinants of the cytotoxicity of these oligomers are still unclear. Here we used liposomes and toxic and nontoxic oligomers formed by the same protein to measure quantitatively the affinity of the two oligomeric species for lipid membranes. To this aim, we quantified the perturbation to the lipid membranes caused by the two oligomers by using the fluorescence quenching of two probes embedded in the polar and apolar regions of the lipid membranes and a well-defined protein-oligomer binding assay using fluorescently labeled oligomers to determine the Stern-Volmer and dissociation constants, respectively. With both approaches, we found that the toxic oligomers have a membrane affinity 20-25 times higher than that of nontoxic oligomers. Circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, and FRET indicated that neither oligomer type changes its structure upon membrane interaction. Using liposomes enriched with trodusquemine, a potential small molecule drug known to penetrate lipid membranes and make them refractory to toxic oligomers, we found that the membrane affinity of the oligomers was remarkably lower. At protective concentrations of the small molecule, the binding of the oligomers to the lipid membranes was fully prevented. Furthermore, the affinity of the toxic oligomers for the lipid membranes was found to increase and slightly decrease with GM1 ganglioside and cholesterol content, respectively, indicating that physicochemical properties of lipid membranes modulate their affinity for misfolded oligomeric species.
2021
12
3189
3202
Errico, Silvia; Ramshini, Hassan; Capitini, Claudia; Canale, Claudio; Spaziano, Martina; Barbut, Denise; Calamai, Martino; Zasloff, Michael; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Vendruscolo, Michele; Chiti, Fabrizio
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1284778
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