Zinc is an essential element for human health. Among its many functions, zinc(II) modulates the immune response to infections and, at high concentrations or in the presence of ionophores, inhibits the replication of various RNA viruses. Structural biology studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed that zinc(II) is the most common metal ion that binds to viral proteins. However, the number of zinc(II)-binding sites identified by experimental methods is far from exhaustive, as metal ions may be lost during protein purification protocols. To better define the zinc(II)-binding proteome of coronavirus, we leveraged the wealth of deposited structural data and state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods. Through this in silico approach, 15 experimental zinc(II) sites were identified and a further 22 were predicted in Spike, open reading frame (ORF)3a/d, ORF8, and several nonstructural proteins, highlighting an essential role of zinc(II) in viral replication. Furthermore, the structural relationships between viral and eukaryotic sites (typically zinc fingers) indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can compete with human proteins for zinc(II) binding. Given the double-edged effect of zinc(II) ions, both essential and toxic to coronavirus, only the complete elucidation of the structural and regulatory zinc(II)-binding sites can guide selective antiviral strategies based on zinc supplementation.

The zinc proteome of SARS-CoV-2 / Andreini, Claudia; Arnesano, Fabio; Rosato, Antonio. - In: METALLOMICS. - ISSN 1756-5901. - STAMPA. - 14:(2022), pp. mfac047.0-mfac047.0. [10.1093/mtomcs/mfac047]

The zinc proteome of SARS-CoV-2

Andreini, Claudia;Arnesano, Fabio
;
Rosato, Antonio
2022

Abstract

Zinc is an essential element for human health. Among its many functions, zinc(II) modulates the immune response to infections and, at high concentrations or in the presence of ionophores, inhibits the replication of various RNA viruses. Structural biology studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed that zinc(II) is the most common metal ion that binds to viral proteins. However, the number of zinc(II)-binding sites identified by experimental methods is far from exhaustive, as metal ions may be lost during protein purification protocols. To better define the zinc(II)-binding proteome of coronavirus, we leveraged the wealth of deposited structural data and state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods. Through this in silico approach, 15 experimental zinc(II) sites were identified and a further 22 were predicted in Spike, open reading frame (ORF)3a/d, ORF8, and several nonstructural proteins, highlighting an essential role of zinc(II) in viral replication. Furthermore, the structural relationships between viral and eukaryotic sites (typically zinc fingers) indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can compete with human proteins for zinc(II) binding. Given the double-edged effect of zinc(II) ions, both essential and toxic to coronavirus, only the complete elucidation of the structural and regulatory zinc(II)-binding sites can guide selective antiviral strategies based on zinc supplementation.
2022
14
0
0
Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Andreini, Claudia; Arnesano, Fabio; Rosato, Antonio
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1285439
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