Thirty-eight percent of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank contain at least one metal ion. However, not all these metal sites are biologically relevant. Cations present as impurities during sample preparation or in the crystallization buffer can cause the formation of protein-metal complexes that do not exist in vivo. We implemented a deep learning approach to build a classifier able to distinguish between physiological and adventitious zinc-binding sites in the 3D structures of metalloproteins. We trained the classifier using manually annotated sites extracted from the MetalPDB database. Using a 10-fold cross validation procedure, the classifier achieved an accuracy of about 90%. The same neural classifier could predict the physiological relevance of non-heme mononuclear iron sites with an accuracy of nearly 80%, suggesting that the rules learned on zinc sites have general relevance. By quantifying the relative importance of the features describing the input zinc sites from the network perspective and by analyzing the characteristics of the MetalPDB datasets, we inferred some common principles. Physiological sites present a low solvent accessibility of the aminoacids forming coordination bonds with the metal ion (the metal ligands), a relatively large number of residues in the metal environment (>= 20), and a distinct pattern of conservation of Cys and His residues in the site. Adventitious sites, on the other hand, tend to have a low number of donor atoms from the polypeptide chain (often one or two). These observations support the evaluation of the physiological relevance of novel metal-binding sites in protein structures.

Learning to Identify Physiological and Adventitious Metal-Binding Sites in the Three-Dimensional Structures of Proteins by Following the Hints of a Deep Neural Network / Laveglia, Vincenzo; Giachetti, Andrea; Sala, Davide; Andreini, Claudia; Rosato, Antonio. - In: JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL INFORMATION AND MODELING. - ISSN 1549-9596. - STAMPA. - 62:(2022), pp. 2951-2960. [10.1021/acs.jcim.2c00522]

Learning to Identify Physiological and Adventitious Metal-Binding Sites in the Three-Dimensional Structures of Proteins by Following the Hints of a Deep Neural Network

Sala, Davide;Andreini, Claudia
;
Rosato, Antonio
2022

Abstract

Thirty-eight percent of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank contain at least one metal ion. However, not all these metal sites are biologically relevant. Cations present as impurities during sample preparation or in the crystallization buffer can cause the formation of protein-metal complexes that do not exist in vivo. We implemented a deep learning approach to build a classifier able to distinguish between physiological and adventitious zinc-binding sites in the 3D structures of metalloproteins. We trained the classifier using manually annotated sites extracted from the MetalPDB database. Using a 10-fold cross validation procedure, the classifier achieved an accuracy of about 90%. The same neural classifier could predict the physiological relevance of non-heme mononuclear iron sites with an accuracy of nearly 80%, suggesting that the rules learned on zinc sites have general relevance. By quantifying the relative importance of the features describing the input zinc sites from the network perspective and by analyzing the characteristics of the MetalPDB datasets, we inferred some common principles. Physiological sites present a low solvent accessibility of the aminoacids forming coordination bonds with the metal ion (the metal ligands), a relatively large number of residues in the metal environment (>= 20), and a distinct pattern of conservation of Cys and His residues in the site. Adventitious sites, on the other hand, tend to have a low number of donor atoms from the polypeptide chain (often one or two). These observations support the evaluation of the physiological relevance of novel metal-binding sites in protein structures.
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2951
2960
Laveglia, Vincenzo; Giachetti, Andrea; Sala, Davide; Andreini, Claudia; Rosato, Antonio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1285440
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