Hospitalization for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection confers an almost five-fold higher risk of post-discharge, all-cause mortality compared to controls from the general population. A negative impact on the functional autonomy of older patients, especially in cases of severe disease and prolonged hospitalization, has been recently described. However, little is known about the determinants of cause-specific mortality and loss of independence (LOI) in the activities of daily living (ADL) following COVID-19 hospitalization. Thus, the current prospective, multicenter study is aimed at identifying the determinants of post-discharge cause-specific mortality and the loss of autonomy in at least one ADL function. Older patients hospitalized for a SARS-CoV-2 infection were consecutively enrolled in an e-Registry from 1 March 2020, until 31 December 2020. After at least six months from discharge, patients were extensively re-evaluated according to a common protocol at the outpatient clinic of eight tertiary care Italian hospitals. Of 193 patients [109 (56.4%) men, mean age 79.9 +/- 9.1 years], 43 (22.3%) died during follow-up. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (46.0%), respiratory failure (26.5%), and gastrointestinal and genitourinary diseases (8.8% each). Pre-morbid ADLs qualified as an independent mortality risk factor [adjusted HR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.63-0.95)]. Of 132 patients, 28 (21.2%) lost their independence in at least one ADL. The adjusted risk of LOI declined with a lower frailty degree [aOR 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.32)]. In conclusion, at long-term follow-up after hospitalization for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, more than 40% of older patients died or experienced a loss of functional independence compared to their pre-morbid condition. Given its high prevalence, the loss of functional independence after hospitalization for COVID-19 could be reasonably included among the features of the "Long COVID-19 syndrome" of older patients.

Determinants of Cause-Specific Mortality and Loss of Independence in Older Patients following Hospitalization for COVID-19: The GeroCovid Outcomes Study / Okoye, Chukwuma; Calsolaro, Valeria; Calabrese, Alessia Maria; Zotti, Sonia; Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Volpato, Stefano; Fumagalli, Stefano; Cherubini, Antonio; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele; Monzani, Fabio. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - ELETTRONICO. - 11:(2022), pp. 5578.1-5578.11. [10.3390/jcm11195578]

Determinants of Cause-Specific Mortality and Loss of Independence in Older Patients following Hospitalization for COVID-19: The GeroCovid Outcomes Study

Fumagalli, Stefano;
2022

Abstract

Hospitalization for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection confers an almost five-fold higher risk of post-discharge, all-cause mortality compared to controls from the general population. A negative impact on the functional autonomy of older patients, especially in cases of severe disease and prolonged hospitalization, has been recently described. However, little is known about the determinants of cause-specific mortality and loss of independence (LOI) in the activities of daily living (ADL) following COVID-19 hospitalization. Thus, the current prospective, multicenter study is aimed at identifying the determinants of post-discharge cause-specific mortality and the loss of autonomy in at least one ADL function. Older patients hospitalized for a SARS-CoV-2 infection were consecutively enrolled in an e-Registry from 1 March 2020, until 31 December 2020. After at least six months from discharge, patients were extensively re-evaluated according to a common protocol at the outpatient clinic of eight tertiary care Italian hospitals. Of 193 patients [109 (56.4%) men, mean age 79.9 +/- 9.1 years], 43 (22.3%) died during follow-up. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (46.0%), respiratory failure (26.5%), and gastrointestinal and genitourinary diseases (8.8% each). Pre-morbid ADLs qualified as an independent mortality risk factor [adjusted HR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.63-0.95)]. Of 132 patients, 28 (21.2%) lost their independence in at least one ADL. The adjusted risk of LOI declined with a lower frailty degree [aOR 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.32)]. In conclusion, at long-term follow-up after hospitalization for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, more than 40% of older patients died or experienced a loss of functional independence compared to their pre-morbid condition. Given its high prevalence, the loss of functional independence after hospitalization for COVID-19 could be reasonably included among the features of the "Long COVID-19 syndrome" of older patients.
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Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Okoye, Chukwuma; Calsolaro, Valeria; Calabrese, Alessia Maria; Zotti, Sonia; Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Volpato, Stefano; Fumagalli, Stefano; Cherubini, Antonio; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele; Monzani, Fabio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1285664
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