IntroductionPotential celiac disease (pCD) is characterized by genetic predisposition, positive anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, but a normal or almost normal jejunal mucosa (e.g., minor histological abnormalities without villous atrophy). To gain further insights into basic mechanisms involved in the development of intestinal villous atrophy, we evaluated and compared the microbial, lipid, and immunological signatures of pCD and atrophic CD (aCD). Materials and methodsThis study included 17 aCD patients, 10 pCD patients, and 12 healthy controls (HC). Serum samples from all participants were collected to analyze free fatty acids (FFAs). Duodenal mucosa samples of aCD and pCD patients were taken to evaluate histology, tissue microbiota composition, and mucosal immune response. ResultsWe found no significant differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota composition of pCD and aCD patients. On the other hand, in pCD patients, the overall abundance of serum FFAs showed relevant and significant differences in comparison with aCD patients and HC. In detail, compared to HC, pCD patients displayed higher levels of propionic, butyric, valeric, 2-ethylhexanoic, tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, and octadecanoic acids. Instead, aCD patients showed increased levels of propionic, isohexanoic, and 2-ethylhexanoic acids, and a lower abundance of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyricacids when compared to HC. In addition, compared to aCD patients, pCD patients showed a higher abundance of isobutyric and octadecanoic acid. Finally, the immunological analysis of duodenal biopsy revealed a lower percentage of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in pCD infiltrate compared to that observed in aCD patients. The functional characterization of T cells documented a pro-inflammatory immune response in both aCD and pCD patients, but the pCD patients showed a higher percentage of Th0/Th17 and a lower percentage of Th1/Th17. ConclusionThe results of the present study show, for the first time, that the duodenal microbiota of patients with pCD does not differ substantially from that of aCD; however, serum FFAs and local T cells displayed a distinctive profile between pCD, aCD, and HC. In conclusion, our result may help to shed new light on the "gut microbiota-immunity axis," lipid metabolites, and duodenal immune response in overt CD and pCD patients, opening new paradigms in understanding the pathogenesis behind CD progression.

Characterization of the "gut microbiota-immunity axis" and microbial lipid metabolites in atrophic and potential celiac disease / Federica, Ricci; Edda, Russo; Daniela, Renzi; Simone, Baldi; Giulia, Nannini; Gabriele, Lami; Marta, Menicatti; Marco, Pallecchi; Gianluca, Bartolucci; Elena, Niccolai; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Serena, Smeazzetto; Matteo, Ramazzotti; Amedeo, Amedei; Salvatore, Calabrò Antonino. - In: FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-302X. - ELETTRONICO. - 13:(2022), pp. 0-0. [10.3389/fmicb.2022.886008]

Characterization of the "gut microbiota-immunity axis" and microbial lipid metabolites in atrophic and potential celiac disease

Edda, Russo;Daniela, Renzi;Gabriele, Lami;Marta, Menicatti;Marco, Pallecchi;Elena, Niccolai;Matteo, Cerboneschi;Serena, Smeazzetto;Matteo, Ramazzotti;Amedeo, Amedei;Salvatore, Calabrò Antonino
2022

Abstract

IntroductionPotential celiac disease (pCD) is characterized by genetic predisposition, positive anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, but a normal or almost normal jejunal mucosa (e.g., minor histological abnormalities without villous atrophy). To gain further insights into basic mechanisms involved in the development of intestinal villous atrophy, we evaluated and compared the microbial, lipid, and immunological signatures of pCD and atrophic CD (aCD). Materials and methodsThis study included 17 aCD patients, 10 pCD patients, and 12 healthy controls (HC). Serum samples from all participants were collected to analyze free fatty acids (FFAs). Duodenal mucosa samples of aCD and pCD patients were taken to evaluate histology, tissue microbiota composition, and mucosal immune response. ResultsWe found no significant differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota composition of pCD and aCD patients. On the other hand, in pCD patients, the overall abundance of serum FFAs showed relevant and significant differences in comparison with aCD patients and HC. In detail, compared to HC, pCD patients displayed higher levels of propionic, butyric, valeric, 2-ethylhexanoic, tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, and octadecanoic acids. Instead, aCD patients showed increased levels of propionic, isohexanoic, and 2-ethylhexanoic acids, and a lower abundance of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyricacids when compared to HC. In addition, compared to aCD patients, pCD patients showed a higher abundance of isobutyric and octadecanoic acid. Finally, the immunological analysis of duodenal biopsy revealed a lower percentage of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in pCD infiltrate compared to that observed in aCD patients. The functional characterization of T cells documented a pro-inflammatory immune response in both aCD and pCD patients, but the pCD patients showed a higher percentage of Th0/Th17 and a lower percentage of Th1/Th17. ConclusionThe results of the present study show, for the first time, that the duodenal microbiota of patients with pCD does not differ substantially from that of aCD; however, serum FFAs and local T cells displayed a distinctive profile between pCD, aCD, and HC. In conclusion, our result may help to shed new light on the "gut microbiota-immunity axis," lipid metabolites, and duodenal immune response in overt CD and pCD patients, opening new paradigms in understanding the pathogenesis behind CD progression.
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Federica, Ricci; Edda, Russo; Daniela, Renzi; Simone, Baldi; Giulia, Nannini; Gabriele, Lami; Marta, Menicatti; Marco, Pallecchi; Gianluca, Bartolucci; Elena, Niccolai; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Serena, Smeazzetto; Matteo, Ramazzotti; Amedeo, Amedei; Salvatore, Calabrò Antonino
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1285670
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