Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize left atrial (LA) pathology in explanted hearts with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM); LA mechanics using echocardiographic speckle-tracking in a large cohort of patients with ATTR-CM; and to study the association with mortality. Background: The clinical significance of LA involvement in ATTR-CM is of great clinical interest. Methods: Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence, type, and extent of amyloid and associated changes in 5 explanted ATTR-CM atria. Echo speckle tracking was used to assess LA reservoir, conduit, contractile function, and stiffness in 906 patients with ATTR-CM (551 wild-type (wt)-ATTR-CM; 93 T60A-ATTR-CM; 241 V122I-ATTR-CM; 21 other). Results: There was extensive ATTR amyloid infiltration in the 5 atria, with loss of normal architecture, vessels remodeling, capillary disruption, and subendocardial fibrosis. Echo speckle tracking in 906 patients with ATTR-CM demonstrated increased atrial stiffness (median [25th-75th quartile] 1.83 [1.15-2.92]) that remained independently associated with prognosis after adjusting for known predictors (lnLA stiff: HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03-1.49; P = 0.029). There was substantial impairment of the 3 phasic functional atrial components (reservoir 8.86% [5.94%-12.97%]; conduit 6.5% [4.53%-9.28%]; contraction function 4.0% [2.29%-6.56%]). Atrial contraction was absent in 22.1% of patients whose electrocardiograms showed sinus rhythm (SR) “atrial electromechanical dissociation” (AEMD). AEMD was associated with poorer prognosis compared with patients with SR and effective mechanical contraction (P = 0.0018). AEMD conferred a similar prognosis to patients in atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: The phenotype of ATTR-CM includes significant infiltration of the atrial walls, with progressive loss of atrial function and increased stiffness, which is a strong independent predictor of mortality. AEMD emerged as a distinctive phenotype identifying patients in SR with poor prognosis.

Clinical Importance of Left Atrial Infiltration in Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis / francesco cappelli. - In: JACC. CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING. - ISSN 1936-878X. - STAMPA. - 15:(2022), pp. 17-29. [10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.06.022]

Clinical Importance of Left Atrial Infiltration in Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis

francesco cappelli
2022

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize left atrial (LA) pathology in explanted hearts with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM); LA mechanics using echocardiographic speckle-tracking in a large cohort of patients with ATTR-CM; and to study the association with mortality. Background: The clinical significance of LA involvement in ATTR-CM is of great clinical interest. Methods: Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence, type, and extent of amyloid and associated changes in 5 explanted ATTR-CM atria. Echo speckle tracking was used to assess LA reservoir, conduit, contractile function, and stiffness in 906 patients with ATTR-CM (551 wild-type (wt)-ATTR-CM; 93 T60A-ATTR-CM; 241 V122I-ATTR-CM; 21 other). Results: There was extensive ATTR amyloid infiltration in the 5 atria, with loss of normal architecture, vessels remodeling, capillary disruption, and subendocardial fibrosis. Echo speckle tracking in 906 patients with ATTR-CM demonstrated increased atrial stiffness (median [25th-75th quartile] 1.83 [1.15-2.92]) that remained independently associated with prognosis after adjusting for known predictors (lnLA stiff: HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03-1.49; P = 0.029). There was substantial impairment of the 3 phasic functional atrial components (reservoir 8.86% [5.94%-12.97%]; conduit 6.5% [4.53%-9.28%]; contraction function 4.0% [2.29%-6.56%]). Atrial contraction was absent in 22.1% of patients whose electrocardiograms showed sinus rhythm (SR) “atrial electromechanical dissociation” (AEMD). AEMD was associated with poorer prognosis compared with patients with SR and effective mechanical contraction (P = 0.0018). AEMD conferred a similar prognosis to patients in atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: The phenotype of ATTR-CM includes significant infiltration of the atrial walls, with progressive loss of atrial function and increased stiffness, which is a strong independent predictor of mortality. AEMD emerged as a distinctive phenotype identifying patients in SR with poor prognosis.
15
17
29
francesco cappelli
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
main (2).pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Pdf editoriale (Version of record)
Licenza: Open Access
Dimensione 4.94 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
4.94 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in FLORE sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1286715
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 23
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact