In the recent years, both the prescriptions of serum 25(OH)D levels assay, and vitamin D supplementation are constantly increasing, as well as the costs to be incurred relating to these specific aspects. As in many other countries, the risk of vitamin D deficiency is particularly high in Italy, as recently confirmed by cohort studies in the general population as well as in patients with metabolic bone disorder. Results confirmed the North-South gradient of vitamin D levels described among European countries, despite the wide use of supplements. Although vitamin D supplementation is also recommended by the Italian Medicine Agency for patients at risk for fragility fracture or for initiating osteoporotic medication, the therapeutic gap for osteoporosis in Italy is very high. There is a consistent proportion of osteoporotic patients not receiving specific therapy for osteoporosis following a fragility fracture, with a poor adherence to the recommendations provided by national guidelines and position paper documents. The failure or inadequate supplementation with vitamin D in patients on antiresorptive or anabolic treatment for osteoporosis is thought to further amplify the problem and exposes patients to a high risk of re-fracture and mortality. Therefore, it is important that attention to its possible clinical consequences must be given. Thus, in light of new evidence from the literature, the SIOMMMS board felt the need to revise and update, by a GRADE/PICO system approach, its previous original recommendations about the definition, prevention, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in adults, released in 2011. Several key points have been here addressed, such as the definition of the vitamin D status: normality values and optimal values; who are the subjects considered at risk of hypovitaminosis D; opportunity or not of performing the biochemical assessment of serum 25(OH)D levels in general population and in subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D; the need or not to evaluate baseline serum 25(OH)D in candidate subjects for pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis; how and whether to supplement vitamin D subjects with hypovitaminosis D or candidates for pharmacological treatment with bone active agents, and the general population; how and whether to supplement vitamin D in chronic kidney disease and/or chronic liver diseases or under treatment with drugs interfering with hepatic metabolism; and finally, if vitamin D may have toxic effects in the subject in need of supplementation.

Definition, Assessment, and Management of Vitamin D Inadequacy: Suggestions, Recommendations, and Warnings from the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) / LUISELLA CIANFEROTTI. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - ELETTRONICO. - (2022), pp. 1-24.

Definition, Assessment, and Management of Vitamin D Inadequacy: Suggestions, Recommendations, and Warnings from the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS)

LUISELLA CIANFEROTTI
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2022

Abstract

In the recent years, both the prescriptions of serum 25(OH)D levels assay, and vitamin D supplementation are constantly increasing, as well as the costs to be incurred relating to these specific aspects. As in many other countries, the risk of vitamin D deficiency is particularly high in Italy, as recently confirmed by cohort studies in the general population as well as in patients with metabolic bone disorder. Results confirmed the North-South gradient of vitamin D levels described among European countries, despite the wide use of supplements. Although vitamin D supplementation is also recommended by the Italian Medicine Agency for patients at risk for fragility fracture or for initiating osteoporotic medication, the therapeutic gap for osteoporosis in Italy is very high. There is a consistent proportion of osteoporotic patients not receiving specific therapy for osteoporosis following a fragility fracture, with a poor adherence to the recommendations provided by national guidelines and position paper documents. The failure or inadequate supplementation with vitamin D in patients on antiresorptive or anabolic treatment for osteoporosis is thought to further amplify the problem and exposes patients to a high risk of re-fracture and mortality. Therefore, it is important that attention to its possible clinical consequences must be given. Thus, in light of new evidence from the literature, the SIOMMMS board felt the need to revise and update, by a GRADE/PICO system approach, its previous original recommendations about the definition, prevention, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in adults, released in 2011. Several key points have been here addressed, such as the definition of the vitamin D status: normality values and optimal values; who are the subjects considered at risk of hypovitaminosis D; opportunity or not of performing the biochemical assessment of serum 25(OH)D levels in general population and in subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D; the need or not to evaluate baseline serum 25(OH)D in candidate subjects for pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis; how and whether to supplement vitamin D subjects with hypovitaminosis D or candidates for pharmacological treatment with bone active agents, and the general population; how and whether to supplement vitamin D in chronic kidney disease and/or chronic liver diseases or under treatment with drugs interfering with hepatic metabolism; and finally, if vitamin D may have toxic effects in the subject in need of supplementation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1287845
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