: Background: People Living With HIV (PLWH), with advanced disease, lower CD4+ T cell counts or an unsuppressed HIV viral load can have a suboptimal vaccine response. For this reason, in the current COVID-19 pandemic, they represent a prioritized population for the SARS-CoV-2 fourth (or second booster) vaccine dose. This work aims to investigate the effects of a second booster on the reactivation of the spike-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in PLWH. Methods: A total of eight PLWH, who received a fourth dose of the original mRNA vaccines were enrolled. They were evaluated before and then 7 days, 1 month and 2 months after the injection. The humoral response was assessed via a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Immunophenotyping and the functional evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune responses were performed via flow cytometry. Results: Anti-spike IgG levels were above the cut-off value for all subjects at all timepoints. The spike-specific CD4+ T cell response was reactivated one week after the fourth vaccine dose, and on average declined at two months post-vaccination. A similar trend was observed for the spike-specific B cells. A low percentage of spike-specific CD4+ T cells was activated by the B.1.1.529 BA.1 Omicron-spike mutated peptides, and the majority of these cells were reactive to the conserved portions of the spike protein. Similarly, the majority of the spike-specific memory B cells were able to bind both Wuhan and Omicron-spike entire protein. Conclusions: Spike-specific adaptive immune responses are transiently reactivated in PLWH following the fourth mRNA vaccine dose. The breadth of the immune responses to the mutated spike protein provides insight on the possible cross-reactivity for the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs).

Fourth Dose of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Transiently Reactivates Spike-Specific Immunological Memory in People Living with HIV (PLWH) / Lamacchia, Giulia; Salvati, Lorenzo; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Mazzoni, Alessio; Vanni, Anna; Capone, Manuela; Carnasciali, Alberto; Farahvachi, Parham; Lagi, Filippo; Di Lauria, Nicoletta; Rocca, Arianna; Colao, Maria Grazia; Liotta, Francesco; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - ELETTRONICO. - 10:(2022), pp. 3261-3261. [10.3390/biomedicines10123261]

Fourth Dose of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Transiently Reactivates Spike-Specific Immunological Memory in People Living with HIV (PLWH)

Lamacchia, Giulia;Salvati, Lorenzo;Kiros, Seble Tekle;Mazzoni, Alessio;Vanni, Anna;Capone, Manuela;Carnasciali, Alberto;Farahvachi, Parham;Lagi, Filippo;Di Lauria, Nicoletta;Rocca, Arianna;Liotta, Francesco;Cosmi, Lorenzo;Rossolini, Gian Maria;Bartoloni, Alessandro;Maggi, Laura;Annunziato, Francesco
2022

Abstract

: Background: People Living With HIV (PLWH), with advanced disease, lower CD4+ T cell counts or an unsuppressed HIV viral load can have a suboptimal vaccine response. For this reason, in the current COVID-19 pandemic, they represent a prioritized population for the SARS-CoV-2 fourth (or second booster) vaccine dose. This work aims to investigate the effects of a second booster on the reactivation of the spike-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in PLWH. Methods: A total of eight PLWH, who received a fourth dose of the original mRNA vaccines were enrolled. They were evaluated before and then 7 days, 1 month and 2 months after the injection. The humoral response was assessed via a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Immunophenotyping and the functional evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune responses were performed via flow cytometry. Results: Anti-spike IgG levels were above the cut-off value for all subjects at all timepoints. The spike-specific CD4+ T cell response was reactivated one week after the fourth vaccine dose, and on average declined at two months post-vaccination. A similar trend was observed for the spike-specific B cells. A low percentage of spike-specific CD4+ T cells was activated by the B.1.1.529 BA.1 Omicron-spike mutated peptides, and the majority of these cells were reactive to the conserved portions of the spike protein. Similarly, the majority of the spike-specific memory B cells were able to bind both Wuhan and Omicron-spike entire protein. Conclusions: Spike-specific adaptive immune responses are transiently reactivated in PLWH following the fourth mRNA vaccine dose. The breadth of the immune responses to the mutated spike protein provides insight on the possible cross-reactivity for the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs).
2022
10
3261
3261
Lamacchia, Giulia; Salvati, Lorenzo; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Mazzoni, Alessio; Vanni, Anna; Capone, Manuela; Carnasciali, Alberto; Farahvachi, Parham; Lagi, Filippo; Di Lauria, Nicoletta; Rocca, Arianna; Colao, Maria Grazia; Liotta, Francesco; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in FLORE sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1296580
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 5
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 5
social impact