Background Given the relationship between interiorized stigma and body image, it could be hypothesized that high levels of internalized transphobia (IT) might predict higher levels of body uneasiness in subjects with gender dysphoria (GD) and worse improvement of body image after gender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT). Aim We sought to evaluate the relationship between IT and body uneasiness in subjects with GD and the role of IT in moderating the improvement of body image after GAHT. Methods In total, 200 individuals with GD performed the baseline assessment; 99 were re-evaluated 12 months after starting GAHT. At baseline participants were evaluated through a face-to-face interview and filled self-administered questionnaires to evaluate GD (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale [UGDS]), IT attitudes (Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals [ATTI] Scale), body uneasiness (Body Uneasiness Test, part A [BUT-A]), and general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised [SCL 90-R]). The same questionnaires, except ATTI, were readministered at follow-ups. Outcomes Outcomes were based on measures of the associations between IT and baseline characteristics of the sample, the longitudinal trends of GD, body uneasiness, and general psychopathology; and IT as a moderator of the longitudinal trend of body uneasiness. Results At baseline, IT correlated with lower level of education, higher GD, and more severe body uneasiness. Longitudinal analyses showed significant improvements in GD, body uneasiness, and general psychopathology during GAHT. Moderation analysis confirmed that participants with more transphobic attitudes showed less improvement after GAHT with regard to body uneasiness (bTime*ATTI = −.002, P = .040). The Johnson-Neyman technique revealed that no significant improvement in body uneasiness was found for participants with ATTI scores lower than 71.14. Clinical Implications The presence of IT should be investigated in subjects with GD who require gender affirming treatments to provide specific interventions aimed at targeting this dimension. Strengths and Limitations Strengths of this study include the mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design and the dimensional evaluation of the investigated constructs. Limitations include the small sample size and the limited follow-up. Furthermore, the effects of gender affirming surgery were not evaluated. Conclusion The association of IT with both baseline body uneasinessand the longitudinal course of this dimension highlighted the clinical significance of body uneasiness and the importance of making continuous efforts to improve education and information to fight societal stigmas.

Internalized transphobia predicts worse longitudinal trend of body uneasiness in transgender persons treated with gender affirming hormone therapy: a 1-year follow-up study / Castellini, Giovanni; Rossi, Eleonora; Cassioli, Emanuele; Sanfilippo, Giulia; Ristori, Jiska; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne. - In: JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1743-6095. - STAMPA. - 20:(2023), pp. 388-397. [10.1093/jsxmed/qdac036]

Internalized transphobia predicts worse longitudinal trend of body uneasiness in transgender persons treated with gender affirming hormone therapy: a 1-year follow-up study

Castellini, Giovanni;Cassioli, Emanuele;Sanfilippo, Giulia;Ristori, Jiska;Vignozzi, Linda;Maggi, Mario;Ricca, Valdo;Fisher, Alessandra Daphne
2023

Abstract

Background Given the relationship between interiorized stigma and body image, it could be hypothesized that high levels of internalized transphobia (IT) might predict higher levels of body uneasiness in subjects with gender dysphoria (GD) and worse improvement of body image after gender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT). Aim We sought to evaluate the relationship between IT and body uneasiness in subjects with GD and the role of IT in moderating the improvement of body image after GAHT. Methods In total, 200 individuals with GD performed the baseline assessment; 99 were re-evaluated 12 months after starting GAHT. At baseline participants were evaluated through a face-to-face interview and filled self-administered questionnaires to evaluate GD (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale [UGDS]), IT attitudes (Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals [ATTI] Scale), body uneasiness (Body Uneasiness Test, part A [BUT-A]), and general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised [SCL 90-R]). The same questionnaires, except ATTI, were readministered at follow-ups. Outcomes Outcomes were based on measures of the associations between IT and baseline characteristics of the sample, the longitudinal trends of GD, body uneasiness, and general psychopathology; and IT as a moderator of the longitudinal trend of body uneasiness. Results At baseline, IT correlated with lower level of education, higher GD, and more severe body uneasiness. Longitudinal analyses showed significant improvements in GD, body uneasiness, and general psychopathology during GAHT. Moderation analysis confirmed that participants with more transphobic attitudes showed less improvement after GAHT with regard to body uneasiness (bTime*ATTI = −.002, P = .040). The Johnson-Neyman technique revealed that no significant improvement in body uneasiness was found for participants with ATTI scores lower than 71.14. Clinical Implications The presence of IT should be investigated in subjects with GD who require gender affirming treatments to provide specific interventions aimed at targeting this dimension. Strengths and Limitations Strengths of this study include the mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design and the dimensional evaluation of the investigated constructs. Limitations include the small sample size and the limited follow-up. Furthermore, the effects of gender affirming surgery were not evaluated. Conclusion The association of IT with both baseline body uneasinessand the longitudinal course of this dimension highlighted the clinical significance of body uneasiness and the importance of making continuous efforts to improve education and information to fight societal stigmas.
2023
20
388
397
Castellini, Giovanni; Rossi, Eleonora; Cassioli, Emanuele; Sanfilippo, Giulia; Ristori, Jiska; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1297283
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