Tuberculosis treatment requires months-long combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs, with shorter treatments leading to relapses. A major impediment to shortening treatment is that Mycobacterium tuberculosis becomes tolerant to the administered drugs, starting early after infection and within days of infecting macrophages. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that macrophage-induced drug tolerance is mediated by mycobacterial drug efflux pumps. Here, using assays to directly measure drug efflux, we find that M. tuberculosis transports the first-line antitubercular drug rifampicin through a proton gradient-dependent mechanism. We show that verapamil, a known efflux pump inhibitor, which inhibits macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance, also inhibits M.tuberculosis rifampicin efflux. As with macrophage- induced tolerance, the calcium channel-inhibiting property of verapamil is not required for its inhibition of rifampicin efflux. By testing verapamil analogs, we show that verapamil directly inhibits M. tuberculosis drug efflux pumps through its human P-glycoprotein (PGP)-like inhibitory activity. Screening commonly used drugs with incidental PGP inhibitory activity, we find many inhibit rifampicin efflux, including the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as omeprazole. Like verapamil, the PPIs inhibit macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance as well as intramacrophage growth, which has also been linked to mycobacterial efflux pump activity. Our assays provide a facile screening platform for M. tuberculosis efflux pump inhibitors that inhibit in vivo drug tolerance and growth.

The human proton pump inhibitors inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampicin efflux and macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance / Lake M.A.; Adams K.N.; Nie F.; Fowler E.; Verma A.K.; Dei S.; Teodori E.; Sherman D.R.; Edelstein P.H.; Spring D.R.; Troll M.; Ramakrishnan L.. - In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. - ISSN 1091-6490. - ELETTRONICO. - 120:(2023), pp. e2215512120.0-e2215512120.0. [10.1073/pnas.2215512120]

The human proton pump inhibitors inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampicin efflux and macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance

Dei S.;Teodori E.;
2023

Abstract

Tuberculosis treatment requires months-long combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs, with shorter treatments leading to relapses. A major impediment to shortening treatment is that Mycobacterium tuberculosis becomes tolerant to the administered drugs, starting early after infection and within days of infecting macrophages. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that macrophage-induced drug tolerance is mediated by mycobacterial drug efflux pumps. Here, using assays to directly measure drug efflux, we find that M. tuberculosis transports the first-line antitubercular drug rifampicin through a proton gradient-dependent mechanism. We show that verapamil, a known efflux pump inhibitor, which inhibits macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance, also inhibits M.tuberculosis rifampicin efflux. As with macrophage- induced tolerance, the calcium channel-inhibiting property of verapamil is not required for its inhibition of rifampicin efflux. By testing verapamil analogs, we show that verapamil directly inhibits M. tuberculosis drug efflux pumps through its human P-glycoprotein (PGP)-like inhibitory activity. Screening commonly used drugs with incidental PGP inhibitory activity, we find many inhibit rifampicin efflux, including the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as omeprazole. Like verapamil, the PPIs inhibit macrophage-induced rifampicin tolerance as well as intramacrophage growth, which has also been linked to mycobacterial efflux pump activity. Our assays provide a facile screening platform for M. tuberculosis efflux pump inhibitors that inhibit in vivo drug tolerance and growth.
2023
120
0
0
Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Lake M.A.; Adams K.N.; Nie F.; Fowler E.; Verma A.K.; Dei S.; Teodori E.; Sherman D.R.; Edelstein P.H.; Spring D.R.; Troll M.; Ramakrishnan L.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1299903
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