Introduction T1DM is the most frequent form of diabetes in children. It has a multifactorial pathogenesis in which genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved. Among genetic explanations a major role is attributed to second class HLA genes, with the greatest risk associated with the simultaneous presence of the haplotypes DR3DQ2 and DR4DQ8. Based on results obtained in other countries, the aim of this research is to verify a possible association between the haplotype DRB1 * 04: 05-DQA1 * 03-DQB1 * 02 and the onset of T1DM among Italian children with possible genotype-phenotype correlations. Greater knowledge of genes which increase or decrease susceptibility is important for genome analysis.Materials and methods 165 patients with type 1 diabetes treated at the Diabetology Unit of the Meyer Children's University Hospital, were clinically analyzed. Data relating to age at diagnosis, pancreatic anti-beta cell autoimmunity, comorbidities with date of diagnosis and family history were retrospectively collected from medical data. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the HLA types of the patients compared to a control group of 819 Tuscan donors enrolled in the National Bone Marrow Donor Register. Typing was carried out using the Eurospital "DIABEGEN" kit, currently in use at the immunology laboratory of the Meyer Children's University Hospital.Results Mean age at diagnosis was 9.3 years; most children (97%) had anti-pancreatic beta cell autoimmunity; the anti-insulin antibody (IAA) was more frequent among children with early clinical disease onset (0-5 years of age). From the case control comparison performed on HLA typing, it emerged that the greatest risk for the development of type 1 diabetes is conferred by the haplotypes DR3DQ2 and DR4DQ8, but in addition to these haplotypes, already known in other countries, we identified another haplotype, DR4DQ2 (DRB1 * 04: 05-DQA1 * 03-DQB1 * 02) which appears to predispose children to type 1 diabetes (p value 2.80E-08) and it is associated with early clinical disease onset (p-value = 0.002).Conclusions We report a new haplotype which increases susceptibility to type 1 diabetes among Italian children and which is associated with early clinical disease onset. Given the central role attributed to genetic factors in the pathogenesis of T1DM and to the II class HLA genes, this new haplotype ought to be recognized as a risk factor and included in tests routinely carried out to identify patients with a genetic predisposition to type I diabetes in Italy. These findings could have practical implications in research and prevention programs.

DR4/DQ2 haplotype confers susceptibility to T1DM with early clinical disease onset: A retrospective analysis in a tertiary-care hospital in Italy / Ricci, Silvia; Perugia, Francesca; Piccini, Barbara; Lodi, Lorenzo; Pegoraro, Francesco; Giovannini, Mattia; Rombolà, Giovanni; Perferi, Giancarlo; Toni, Sonia; Azzari, Chiara. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - ELETTRONICO. - 17:(2022), pp. 0-0. [10.1371/journal.pone.0276896]

DR4/DQ2 haplotype confers susceptibility to T1DM with early clinical disease onset: A retrospective analysis in a tertiary-care hospital in Italy

Ricci, Silvia;Perugia, Francesca;Lodi, Lorenzo;Pegoraro, Francesco;Giovannini, Mattia;Toni, Sonia;Azzari, Chiara
2022

Abstract

Introduction T1DM is the most frequent form of diabetes in children. It has a multifactorial pathogenesis in which genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved. Among genetic explanations a major role is attributed to second class HLA genes, with the greatest risk associated with the simultaneous presence of the haplotypes DR3DQ2 and DR4DQ8. Based on results obtained in other countries, the aim of this research is to verify a possible association between the haplotype DRB1 * 04: 05-DQA1 * 03-DQB1 * 02 and the onset of T1DM among Italian children with possible genotype-phenotype correlations. Greater knowledge of genes which increase or decrease susceptibility is important for genome analysis.Materials and methods 165 patients with type 1 diabetes treated at the Diabetology Unit of the Meyer Children's University Hospital, were clinically analyzed. Data relating to age at diagnosis, pancreatic anti-beta cell autoimmunity, comorbidities with date of diagnosis and family history were retrospectively collected from medical data. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the HLA types of the patients compared to a control group of 819 Tuscan donors enrolled in the National Bone Marrow Donor Register. Typing was carried out using the Eurospital "DIABEGEN" kit, currently in use at the immunology laboratory of the Meyer Children's University Hospital.Results Mean age at diagnosis was 9.3 years; most children (97%) had anti-pancreatic beta cell autoimmunity; the anti-insulin antibody (IAA) was more frequent among children with early clinical disease onset (0-5 years of age). From the case control comparison performed on HLA typing, it emerged that the greatest risk for the development of type 1 diabetes is conferred by the haplotypes DR3DQ2 and DR4DQ8, but in addition to these haplotypes, already known in other countries, we identified another haplotype, DR4DQ2 (DRB1 * 04: 05-DQA1 * 03-DQB1 * 02) which appears to predispose children to type 1 diabetes (p value 2.80E-08) and it is associated with early clinical disease onset (p-value = 0.002).Conclusions We report a new haplotype which increases susceptibility to type 1 diabetes among Italian children and which is associated with early clinical disease onset. Given the central role attributed to genetic factors in the pathogenesis of T1DM and to the II class HLA genes, this new haplotype ought to be recognized as a risk factor and included in tests routinely carried out to identify patients with a genetic predisposition to type I diabetes in Italy. These findings could have practical implications in research and prevention programs.
2022
17
0
0
Ricci, Silvia; Perugia, Francesca; Piccini, Barbara; Lodi, Lorenzo; Pegoraro, Francesco; Giovannini, Mattia; Rombolà, Giovanni; Perferi, Giancarlo; Toni, Sonia; Azzari, Chiara
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1300679
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