Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS) axes are strongly interconnected. Interactions between these axes are complex and poorly understood. These interactions are characterized by redundancies in reciprocal influences at each level of regulation and the combination of endocrine and paracrine effects that change during development.Objectives To comprehensively review the crosstalk between the HPG and HPS axes and related pathological and clinical aspects during various life stages of male subjects.Materials and methods A thorough search of publications available in PubMed was performed using proper keywords.Results Molecular studies confirmed the expressions of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors on the HPG axis and reproductive organs, indicating a possible interaction between HPS and HPG axes at various levels. Insulin growth factors participate in sexual differentiation during fetal development, indicating that normal HPS axis activity is required for proper testicular development. IGF-I contributes to correct testicular position during minipuberty, determines linear growth during childhood, and promotes puberty onset and pace through gonadotropin-releasing hormone activation. IGF-I levels are high during transition age, even when linear growth is almost complete, suggesting its role in reproductive tract maturation. Patients with GH deficiency (GHD) and insensitivity (GHI) exhibit delayed puberty and impaired genital development; replacement therapy in such patients induces proper pubertal development. In adults, few studies have suggested that lower IGF-I levels are associated with impaired sperm parameters.Discussion and conclusion The role of GH-IGF-I in testicular development remains largely unexplored. However, it is important to evaluate gonadic development in children with GHD. Additionally, HPS axis function should be evaluated in children with urogenital malformation or gonadal development alterations. Correct diagnosis and prompt therapeutic intervention are needed for healthy puberty, attainment of complete gonadal development during transition age, and fertility potential in adulthood.

Somatotropic-Testicular Axis: A crosstalk between GH/IGF-I and gonadal hormones during development, transition, and adult age / Tenuta M.; Carlomagno F.; Cangiano B.; Kanakis G.; Pozza C.; Sbardella E.; Isidori A.M.; Krausz C.; Gianfrilli D.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2927. - STAMPA. - 9:(2021), pp. 168-184. [10.1111/andr.12918]

Somatotropic-Testicular Axis: A crosstalk between GH/IGF-I and gonadal hormones during development, transition, and adult age

Krausz C.;
2021

Abstract

Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS) axes are strongly interconnected. Interactions between these axes are complex and poorly understood. These interactions are characterized by redundancies in reciprocal influences at each level of regulation and the combination of endocrine and paracrine effects that change during development.Objectives To comprehensively review the crosstalk between the HPG and HPS axes and related pathological and clinical aspects during various life stages of male subjects.Materials and methods A thorough search of publications available in PubMed was performed using proper keywords.Results Molecular studies confirmed the expressions of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors on the HPG axis and reproductive organs, indicating a possible interaction between HPS and HPG axes at various levels. Insulin growth factors participate in sexual differentiation during fetal development, indicating that normal HPS axis activity is required for proper testicular development. IGF-I contributes to correct testicular position during minipuberty, determines linear growth during childhood, and promotes puberty onset and pace through gonadotropin-releasing hormone activation. IGF-I levels are high during transition age, even when linear growth is almost complete, suggesting its role in reproductive tract maturation. Patients with GH deficiency (GHD) and insensitivity (GHI) exhibit delayed puberty and impaired genital development; replacement therapy in such patients induces proper pubertal development. In adults, few studies have suggested that lower IGF-I levels are associated with impaired sperm parameters.Discussion and conclusion The role of GH-IGF-I in testicular development remains largely unexplored. However, it is important to evaluate gonadic development in children with GHD. Additionally, HPS axis function should be evaluated in children with urogenital malformation or gonadal development alterations. Correct diagnosis and prompt therapeutic intervention are needed for healthy puberty, attainment of complete gonadal development during transition age, and fertility potential in adulthood.
2021
9
168
184
Tenuta M.; Carlomagno F.; Cangiano B.; Kanakis G.; Pozza C.; Sbardella E.; Isidori A.M.; Krausz C.; Gianfrilli D.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1311337
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