Azoospermia affects 1% of men, and it can be due to: (i) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, (ii) primary quantitative spermatogenic disturbances, (iii) urogenital duct obstruction. Known genetic factors contribute to all these categories, and genetic testing is part of the routine diagnostic workup of azoospermic men. The diagnostic yield of genetic tests in azoospermia is different in the different etiological categories, with the highest in Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens (90%) and the lowest in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) due to primary testicular failure (similar to 30%). Whole-Exome Sequencing allowed the discovery of an increasing number of monogenic defects of NOA with a current list of 38 candidate genes. These genes are of potential clinical relevance for future gene panel-based screening. We classified these genes according to the associated-testicular histology underlying the NOA phenotype. The validation and the discovery of novel NOA genes will radically improve patient management. Interestingly, approximately 37% of candidate genes are shared in human male and female gonadal failure, implying that genetic counselling should be extended also to female family members of NOA patients.

Genetics of azoospermia / Cioppi F.; Rosta V.; Krausz C.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - STAMPA. - 22:(2021), pp. 3264-3297. [10.3390/ijms22063264]

Genetics of azoospermia

Cioppi F.;Rosta V.;Krausz C.
2021

Abstract

Azoospermia affects 1% of men, and it can be due to: (i) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, (ii) primary quantitative spermatogenic disturbances, (iii) urogenital duct obstruction. Known genetic factors contribute to all these categories, and genetic testing is part of the routine diagnostic workup of azoospermic men. The diagnostic yield of genetic tests in azoospermia is different in the different etiological categories, with the highest in Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens (90%) and the lowest in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) due to primary testicular failure (similar to 30%). Whole-Exome Sequencing allowed the discovery of an increasing number of monogenic defects of NOA with a current list of 38 candidate genes. These genes are of potential clinical relevance for future gene panel-based screening. We classified these genes according to the associated-testicular histology underlying the NOA phenotype. The validation and the discovery of novel NOA genes will radically improve patient management. Interestingly, approximately 37% of candidate genes are shared in human male and female gonadal failure, implying that genetic counselling should be extended also to female family members of NOA patients.
2021
22
3264
3297
Cioppi F.; Rosta V.; Krausz C.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1311340
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