Background Varicocoeles have been considered for a long time potentially correctable causes for male infertility, even though the correlation of this condition with infertility and sperm damage is still debated.Objective To present a summary of the evidence evaluation for imaging varicocoeles, to underline the need for a standardized examination technique and for a unique classification, and to focus on pitfalls in image interpretation.Methods Based on the evidence of the literature, the current role of ultrasound (US) imaging for varicocoeles has been reported and illustrated, with emphasis on examination technique, classification, and pitfalls.Results US is the imaging modality of choice. It is widely used in Europe, while in other countries clinical classification of varicocoeles is considered sufficient to manage the patient. A number of US classifications exist for varicocoeles, in which the examinnation is performed in different ways.Discussion An effort toward standardization is mandatory, since lack of standardization contributes to the confusion of the available literature, and has a negative impact on the understanding of the role itself of imaging in patients with varicocoeles.Conclusion Use of the Sarteschi/Liguori classification for varicocoeles is recommended, since it is the most complete and widely used US scoring system available today.Tubular extratesticular structures resembling varicocoeles, either at palpation or at US, should be identified and correctly characterized.

Varicocoele. Classification and pitfalls / Bertolotto M.; Cantisani V.; Drudi F.M.; Lotti F.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2927. - STAMPA. - 9:(2021), pp. 1322-1330. [10.1111/andr.13053]

Varicocoele. Classification and pitfalls

Lotti F.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2021

Abstract

Background Varicocoeles have been considered for a long time potentially correctable causes for male infertility, even though the correlation of this condition with infertility and sperm damage is still debated.Objective To present a summary of the evidence evaluation for imaging varicocoeles, to underline the need for a standardized examination technique and for a unique classification, and to focus on pitfalls in image interpretation.Methods Based on the evidence of the literature, the current role of ultrasound (US) imaging for varicocoeles has been reported and illustrated, with emphasis on examination technique, classification, and pitfalls.Results US is the imaging modality of choice. It is widely used in Europe, while in other countries clinical classification of varicocoeles is considered sufficient to manage the patient. A number of US classifications exist for varicocoeles, in which the examinnation is performed in different ways.Discussion An effort toward standardization is mandatory, since lack of standardization contributes to the confusion of the available literature, and has a negative impact on the understanding of the role itself of imaging in patients with varicocoeles.Conclusion Use of the Sarteschi/Liguori classification for varicocoeles is recommended, since it is the most complete and widely used US scoring system available today.Tubular extratesticular structures resembling varicocoeles, either at palpation or at US, should be identified and correctly characterized.
2021
9
1322
1330
Bertolotto M.; Cantisani V.; Drudi F.M.; Lotti F.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1311490
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