The embryo and fetus grow in a hypoxic environment. Intrauterine oxygen levels fluctuate throughout the pregnancy, allowing the oxygen to modulate apparently contradictory functions, such as the expansion of stemness but also differentiation. We have recently demonstrated that in the last weeks of pregnancy, oxygenation progressively increases, but the trend of oxygen levels during the previous weeks remains to be clarified. In the present retrospective study, umbilical venous and arterial oxygen levels, fetal oxygen extraction, oxygen content, CO2, and lactate were evaluated in a cohort of healthy newborns with gestational age < 37 weeks. A progressive decrease in pO(2) levels associated with a concomitant increase in pCO(2) and reduction in pH has been observed starting from the 23rd week until approximately the 33-34th week of gestation. Over this period, despite the increased hypoxemia, oxygen content remains stable thanks to increasing hemoglobin concentration, which allows the fetus to become more hypoxemic but not more hypoxic. Starting from the 33-34th week, fetal oxygenation increases and ideally continues following the trend recently described in term fetuses. The present study confirms that oxygenation during intrauterine life continues to vary even after placenta development, showing a clear biphasic trend. Fetuses, in fact, from mid-gestation to near-term, become progressively more hypoxemic. However, starting from the 33-34th week, oxygenation progressively increases until birth. In this regard, our data suggest that the placenta is the hub that ensures this variable oxygen availability to the fetus, and we speculate that this biphasic trend is functional for the promotion, in specific tissues and at specific times, of stemness and intrauterine differentiation.

Fetal Oxygenation from the 23rd to the 36th Week of Gestation Evaluated through the Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Analysis / Filippi, Luca; Pascarella, Francesca; Pini, Alessandro; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Bagnoli, Paola; Morganti, Riccardo; Innocenti, Francesca; Castagnini, Nicola; Melosi, Alice; Scaramuzzo, Rosa Teresa. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - ELETTRONICO. - 24:(2023), pp. 12487-12504. [10.3390/ijms241512487]

Fetal Oxygenation from the 23rd to the 36th Week of Gestation Evaluated through the Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Analysis

Filippi, Luca;Pini, Alessandro;Bagnoli, Paola;
2023

Abstract

The embryo and fetus grow in a hypoxic environment. Intrauterine oxygen levels fluctuate throughout the pregnancy, allowing the oxygen to modulate apparently contradictory functions, such as the expansion of stemness but also differentiation. We have recently demonstrated that in the last weeks of pregnancy, oxygenation progressively increases, but the trend of oxygen levels during the previous weeks remains to be clarified. In the present retrospective study, umbilical venous and arterial oxygen levels, fetal oxygen extraction, oxygen content, CO2, and lactate were evaluated in a cohort of healthy newborns with gestational age < 37 weeks. A progressive decrease in pO(2) levels associated with a concomitant increase in pCO(2) and reduction in pH has been observed starting from the 23rd week until approximately the 33-34th week of gestation. Over this period, despite the increased hypoxemia, oxygen content remains stable thanks to increasing hemoglobin concentration, which allows the fetus to become more hypoxemic but not more hypoxic. Starting from the 33-34th week, fetal oxygenation increases and ideally continues following the trend recently described in term fetuses. The present study confirms that oxygenation during intrauterine life continues to vary even after placenta development, showing a clear biphasic trend. Fetuses, in fact, from mid-gestation to near-term, become progressively more hypoxemic. However, starting from the 33-34th week, oxygenation progressively increases until birth. In this regard, our data suggest that the placenta is the hub that ensures this variable oxygen availability to the fetus, and we speculate that this biphasic trend is functional for the promotion, in specific tissues and at specific times, of stemness and intrauterine differentiation.
2023
24
12487
12504
Filippi, Luca; Pascarella, Francesca; Pini, Alessandro; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Bagnoli, Paola; Morganti, Riccardo; Innocenti, Francesca; Castagnini, Ni...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1332931
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