Objectives: The "cognitive reserve" (CR) theory posits that higher premorbid cognitive activities can mitigate the effects of brain damage. This study aimed to investigate the association between CR and long-term functional autonomy in patients surviving a severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Setting: Data were collected from the database of inpatients with severe acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation unit admitted from August 2012 to May 2020. Participants: Patients that had incurred an sTBI, aged 18+ years, completing the phone Glasgow Outcome Scale-Expanded at follow-up (pGOS-E) in absence of previous brain trauma or neurological disease, or cognitive disorders were included. Patients with severe brain injury from non-traumatic etiologies were not included in the study. Design: In this longitudinal study, all patients underwent a multidimensional assessment including the cognitive reserve index questionnaire (CRIq), the coma recovery scale-revised, the level of cognitive functioning, the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), and the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test at admission. At discharge, functional scales were administered again together with the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The pGOS-E was assessed at follow-up. Main measures: pGOS-E. Results: A total of 106 patients/caregivers underwent the pGOS-E after 5.8 [3.6] years from the event. Among them, 46 (43.4%) died after discharge, and 60 patients [men: 48 (80%); median age: 54 years; median time post-onset: 37 days; median education level: 10 years; median CRIq total score: 91] were included in the analysis exploring the association between pGOS-E and demographic data, cognitive reserve surrogates, and clinical variables at admission and discharge from the rehabilitation unit. A younger age (B = -0.035, p = 0.004) and a lower DRS category at discharge (B = -0.392, p = 0.029) were significantly related to a higher long-term functional autonomy in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Long-term functional autonomy was not influenced by CR as assessed through the educational level and the CRIq.

Cognitive reserve index and long-term disability in patients with severe traumatic brain injury discharged from the intensive rehabilitation unit / Hakiki, Bahia; Pancani, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Draghi, Francesca; Maccanti, Daniela; Mannini, Andrea; Cecchi, Francesca. - In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 1664-2295. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:(2023), pp. 1106989-0. [10.3389/fneur.2023.1106989]

Cognitive reserve index and long-term disability in patients with severe traumatic brain injury discharged from the intensive rehabilitation unit

Hakiki, Bahia;Pancani, Silvia;Romoli, Anna Maria;Mannini, Andrea;Cecchi, Francesca
2023

Abstract

Objectives: The "cognitive reserve" (CR) theory posits that higher premorbid cognitive activities can mitigate the effects of brain damage. This study aimed to investigate the association between CR and long-term functional autonomy in patients surviving a severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Setting: Data were collected from the database of inpatients with severe acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation unit admitted from August 2012 to May 2020. Participants: Patients that had incurred an sTBI, aged 18+ years, completing the phone Glasgow Outcome Scale-Expanded at follow-up (pGOS-E) in absence of previous brain trauma or neurological disease, or cognitive disorders were included. Patients with severe brain injury from non-traumatic etiologies were not included in the study. Design: In this longitudinal study, all patients underwent a multidimensional assessment including the cognitive reserve index questionnaire (CRIq), the coma recovery scale-revised, the level of cognitive functioning, the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), and the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test at admission. At discharge, functional scales were administered again together with the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The pGOS-E was assessed at follow-up. Main measures: pGOS-E. Results: A total of 106 patients/caregivers underwent the pGOS-E after 5.8 [3.6] years from the event. Among them, 46 (43.4%) died after discharge, and 60 patients [men: 48 (80%); median age: 54 years; median time post-onset: 37 days; median education level: 10 years; median CRIq total score: 91] were included in the analysis exploring the association between pGOS-E and demographic data, cognitive reserve surrogates, and clinical variables at admission and discharge from the rehabilitation unit. A younger age (B = -0.035, p = 0.004) and a lower DRS category at discharge (B = -0.392, p = 0.029) were significantly related to a higher long-term functional autonomy in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Long-term functional autonomy was not influenced by CR as assessed through the educational level and the CRIq.
2023
14
1106989
0
Hakiki, Bahia; Pancani, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Draghi, Francesca; Maccanti, Daniela; Mannini, Andrea; Cecchi, Francesca
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1339744
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