The central nervous system (CNS) is finely protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Immune soluble factors such as cytokines (CKs) are normally produced in the CNS, contributing to physiological immunosurveillance and homeostatic synaptic scaling. CKs are peptide, pleiotropic molecules involved in a broad range of cellular functions, with a pivotal role in resolving the inflammation and promoting tissue healing. However, pro-inflammatory CKs can exert a detrimental effect in pathological conditions, spreading the damage. In the inflamed CNS, CKs recruit immune cells, stimulate the local production of other inflammatory mediators, and promote synaptic dysfunction. Our understanding of neuroinflammation in humans owes much to the study of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune and demyelinating disease, in which autoreactive T cells migrate from the periphery to the CNS after the encounter with a still unknown antigen. CNS-infiltrating T cells produce pro-inflammatory CKs that aggravate local demyelination and neurodegeneration. This review aims to recapitulate the state of the art about CKs role in the healthy and inflamed CNS, with focus on recent advances bridging the study of adaptive immune system and neurophysiology.

The brain cytokine orchestra in multiple sclerosis: from neuroinflammation to synaptopathology / Amoriello, Roberta; Memo, Christian; Ballerini, Laura; Ballerini, Clara. - In: MOLECULAR BRAIN. - ISSN 1756-6606. - ELETTRONICO. - 17:(2024), pp. 0-0. [10.1186/s13041-024-01077-7]

The brain cytokine orchestra in multiple sclerosis: from neuroinflammation to synaptopathology

Amoriello, Roberta
;
Ballerini, Clara
2024

Abstract

The central nervous system (CNS) is finely protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Immune soluble factors such as cytokines (CKs) are normally produced in the CNS, contributing to physiological immunosurveillance and homeostatic synaptic scaling. CKs are peptide, pleiotropic molecules involved in a broad range of cellular functions, with a pivotal role in resolving the inflammation and promoting tissue healing. However, pro-inflammatory CKs can exert a detrimental effect in pathological conditions, spreading the damage. In the inflamed CNS, CKs recruit immune cells, stimulate the local production of other inflammatory mediators, and promote synaptic dysfunction. Our understanding of neuroinflammation in humans owes much to the study of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune and demyelinating disease, in which autoreactive T cells migrate from the periphery to the CNS after the encounter with a still unknown antigen. CNS-infiltrating T cells produce pro-inflammatory CKs that aggravate local demyelination and neurodegeneration. This review aims to recapitulate the state of the art about CKs role in the healthy and inflamed CNS, with focus on recent advances bridging the study of adaptive immune system and neurophysiology.
2024
17
0
0
Amoriello, Roberta; Memo, Christian; Ballerini, Laura; Ballerini, Clara
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1348711
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