Aims: To evaluate whether antibodies specific for the vaccinia virus (VV) are still detectable after at least 45 years from immunization. To confirm that VV-specific antibodies are endowed with the capacity to neutralize Mpox virus (MPXV) in vitro. To test a possible role of polyclonal nonspecific activation in the maintenance of immunologic memory. Methods: Sera were collected from the following groups: smallpox-vaccinated individuals with or without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), unvaccinated donors, and convalescent individuals after MPXV infection. Supernatant of VVor MPXV-infected Vero cells were inactivated and used as antigens in ELISA or in Western blot (WB) analyses. An MPXV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was optimized and performed on study samples. VV- and PPD-specific memory T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results: None of the smallpox unvaccinated donors tested positive in ELISA or WB analysis and their sera were unable to neutralize MPXV in vitro. Sera from all the individuals convalescing from an MPXV infection tested positive for anti-VV or MPXV IgG with high titers and showed MPXV in vitro neutralization capacity. Sera from most of the vaccinated individuals showed IgG anti-VV and anti-MPXV at high titers. WB analyses showed that positive sera from vaccinated or convalescent individuals recognized both VV and MPXV antigens. Higher VV-specific IgG titer and specific T cells were observed in LTBI individuals. Conclusions: ELISA and WB performed using supernatant of VV- or MPXV-infected cells are suitable to identify individuals vaccinated against smallpox at more than 45 years from immunization and individuals convalescing from a recent MPXV infection. ELISA and WB results show a good correlation with PRNT. Data confirm that a smallpox vaccination induces a long-lasting memory in terms of specific IgG and that antibodies raised against VV may neutralize MPXV in vitro. Finally, higher titers of VV-specific antibodies and higher frequency of VV-specific memory T cells in LTBI individuals suggest a role of polyclonal non-specific activation in the maintenance of immunologic memory.

Antibodies Induced by Smallpox Vaccination after at Least 45 Years Cross-React with and In Vitro Neutralize Mpox Virus: A Role for Polyclonal B Cell Activation? / Mariotti, Sabrina; Venturi, Giulietta; Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Teloni, Raffaela; De Santis, Riccardo; Amendola, Antonello; Fortuna, Claudia; Marsili, Giulia; Grilli, Giorgia; Lia, Maria Stella; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Lagi, Filippo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Iacobino, Angelo; Cresta, Raffaele; Lastilla, Marco; Biselli, Roberto; Di Bonito, Paola; Lista, Florigio; Nisini, Roberto. - In: VIRUSES. - ISSN 1999-4915. - ELETTRONICO. - 16:(2024), pp. 0-0. [10.3390/v16040620]

Antibodies Induced by Smallpox Vaccination after at Least 45 Years Cross-React with and In Vitro Neutralize Mpox Virus: A Role for Polyclonal B Cell Activation?

De Santis, Riccardo;Kiros, Seble Tekle;Lagi, Filippo;Bartoloni, Alessandro;
2024

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate whether antibodies specific for the vaccinia virus (VV) are still detectable after at least 45 years from immunization. To confirm that VV-specific antibodies are endowed with the capacity to neutralize Mpox virus (MPXV) in vitro. To test a possible role of polyclonal nonspecific activation in the maintenance of immunologic memory. Methods: Sera were collected from the following groups: smallpox-vaccinated individuals with or without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), unvaccinated donors, and convalescent individuals after MPXV infection. Supernatant of VVor MPXV-infected Vero cells were inactivated and used as antigens in ELISA or in Western blot (WB) analyses. An MPXV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was optimized and performed on study samples. VV- and PPD-specific memory T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results: None of the smallpox unvaccinated donors tested positive in ELISA or WB analysis and their sera were unable to neutralize MPXV in vitro. Sera from all the individuals convalescing from an MPXV infection tested positive for anti-VV or MPXV IgG with high titers and showed MPXV in vitro neutralization capacity. Sera from most of the vaccinated individuals showed IgG anti-VV and anti-MPXV at high titers. WB analyses showed that positive sera from vaccinated or convalescent individuals recognized both VV and MPXV antigens. Higher VV-specific IgG titer and specific T cells were observed in LTBI individuals. Conclusions: ELISA and WB performed using supernatant of VV- or MPXV-infected cells are suitable to identify individuals vaccinated against smallpox at more than 45 years from immunization and individuals convalescing from a recent MPXV infection. ELISA and WB results show a good correlation with PRNT. Data confirm that a smallpox vaccination induces a long-lasting memory in terms of specific IgG and that antibodies raised against VV may neutralize MPXV in vitro. Finally, higher titers of VV-specific antibodies and higher frequency of VV-specific memory T cells in LTBI individuals suggest a role of polyclonal non-specific activation in the maintenance of immunologic memory.
2024
16
0
0
Mariotti, Sabrina; Venturi, Giulietta; Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Teloni, Raffaela; De Santis, Riccardo; Amendola, Antonello; Fortuna, Claudia; Marsil...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1357194
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