Multiheme cytochromes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical cycles, but understanding the origin and evolution of these proteins is a challenge due to their ancient origin and complex structure. Up until now, the evolution of multiheme cytochromes composed by multiple redox modules in a single polypeptide chain was proposed to occur by gene fusion events. In this context, the pentaheme nitrite reductase NrfA and the tetraheme cytochrome c(554) were previously proposed to be at the origin of the extant octa- and nonaheme cytochrome c involved in metabolic pathways that contribute to the nitrogen, sulfur, and iron biogeochemical cycles by a gene fusion event. Here, we combine structural and character-based phylogenetic analysis with an unbiased root placement method to refine the evolutionary relationships between these multiheme cytochromes. The evidence show that NrfA and cytochrome c(554) belong to different clades, which suggests that these two multiheme cytochromes are products of truncation of ancestral octaheme cytochromes related to extant octaheme nitrite reductase and MccA, respectively. From our phylogenetic analysis, the last common ancestor is predicted to be an octaheme cytochrome with nitrite reduction ability. Evolution from this octaheme framework led to the great diversity of extant multiheme cytochromes analyzed here by pruning and grafting of protein modules and hemes. By shedding light into the evolution of multiheme cytochromes that intervene in different biogeochemical cycles, this work contributes to our understanding about the interplay between biology and geochemistry across large time scales in the history of Earth.

A New Paradigm of Multiheme Cytochrome Evolution by Grafting and Pruning Protein Modules / Soares R.; Costa N.L.; Paquete C.M.; Andreini C.; Louro R.O.. - In: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. - ISSN 1537-1719. - ELETTRONICO. - 39:(2022), pp. msac139.0-msac139.0. [10.1093/molbev/msac139]

A New Paradigm of Multiheme Cytochrome Evolution by Grafting and Pruning Protein Modules

Andreini C.;
2022

Abstract

Multiheme cytochromes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical cycles, but understanding the origin and evolution of these proteins is a challenge due to their ancient origin and complex structure. Up until now, the evolution of multiheme cytochromes composed by multiple redox modules in a single polypeptide chain was proposed to occur by gene fusion events. In this context, the pentaheme nitrite reductase NrfA and the tetraheme cytochrome c(554) were previously proposed to be at the origin of the extant octa- and nonaheme cytochrome c involved in metabolic pathways that contribute to the nitrogen, sulfur, and iron biogeochemical cycles by a gene fusion event. Here, we combine structural and character-based phylogenetic analysis with an unbiased root placement method to refine the evolutionary relationships between these multiheme cytochromes. The evidence show that NrfA and cytochrome c(554) belong to different clades, which suggests that these two multiheme cytochromes are products of truncation of ancestral octaheme cytochromes related to extant octaheme nitrite reductase and MccA, respectively. From our phylogenetic analysis, the last common ancestor is predicted to be an octaheme cytochrome with nitrite reduction ability. Evolution from this octaheme framework led to the great diversity of extant multiheme cytochromes analyzed here by pruning and grafting of protein modules and hemes. By shedding light into the evolution of multiheme cytochromes that intervene in different biogeochemical cycles, this work contributes to our understanding about the interplay between biology and geochemistry across large time scales in the history of Earth.
2022
39
0
0
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Soares R.; Costa N.L.; Paquete C.M.; Andreini C.; Louro R.O.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1359976
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