Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular levels variations were correlated to changes in neuronal activity. This was done initially by means of the cup technique and then by the microdialysis technique. The latter, notwithstanding some technical limitations, makes it possible to detect variations in extracellular levels of ACh in unrestrained, behaving animals. This review summarizes and discusses the results obtained investigating the changes in ACh release during performance of operant tasks, exposition to novel stimuli, locomotor activity, and the performance of spatial memory tasks, working memory, and place preference memory tasks. Activation of the forebrain cholinergic system has been demonstrated in many tasks and conditions in which the environment requires the animal to analyze novel stimuli that may represent a threat or offer a reward. The sustained cholinergic activation, demonstrated by high levels of extracellular ACh observed during the behavioral paradigms, indicates that many behaviors occur within or require the facilitation provided by the cholinergic system to the operation of pertinent neuronal pathways.

Changes in acetylcholine extracellular levels during cognitive processes / G. PEPEU; M.G. GIOVANNINI. - In: LEARNING & MEMORY. - ISSN 1072-0502. - STAMPA. - 11:(2004), pp. 21-27. [10.1101/lm.68104]

Changes in acetylcholine extracellular levels during cognitive processes.

PEPEU, GIANCARLO;GIOVANNINI, MARIA GRAZIA
2004

Abstract

Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular levels variations were correlated to changes in neuronal activity. This was done initially by means of the cup technique and then by the microdialysis technique. The latter, notwithstanding some technical limitations, makes it possible to detect variations in extracellular levels of ACh in unrestrained, behaving animals. This review summarizes and discusses the results obtained investigating the changes in ACh release during performance of operant tasks, exposition to novel stimuli, locomotor activity, and the performance of spatial memory tasks, working memory, and place preference memory tasks. Activation of the forebrain cholinergic system has been demonstrated in many tasks and conditions in which the environment requires the animal to analyze novel stimuli that may represent a threat or offer a reward. The sustained cholinergic activation, demonstrated by high levels of extracellular ACh observed during the behavioral paradigms, indicates that many behaviors occur within or require the facilitation provided by the cholinergic system to the operation of pertinent neuronal pathways.
2004
11
21
27
G. PEPEU; M.G. GIOVANNINI
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/211938
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