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|Titolo:||Human Th1 dichotomy: origin, phenotype and biologic activities|
|Autori interni:||ANNUNZIATO, FRANCESCO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Abstract:||The great variety of pathogens present in the environment has obliged the immune system to evolve different mechanisms for tailored and maximally protective responses. Initially, two major types of CD4+ T helper (Th) effector cells were identified, and named as type 1 (Th1) and type (Th2) cells because of the different cytokines they produce. More recently, a third type of CD4+ Th effectors has been identified and named as Th17 cells. Th17 cells, however, have been found to exhibit high plasticity because they rapidly shift into the Th1 phenotype in the inflammatory sites. Therefore, in these sites usually there is a dichotomic mixture of classic and non classic (Th17-derived) Th1 cells. In humans, non classic Th1 cells express CD161, as well as the retinoic acid orphan receptor C, IL-17 receptor E, IL-1RI, CCR6, and IL-4-induced gene 1 and Tob-1, which are all virtually absent from classic Th1 cells. The possibility to distinguish these two cell subsets may allow the opportunity to better establish their respective pathogenic role in different chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we discuss the different origin, the distinctive phenotypic features and the major biologic activities of classic and non classic Th1 cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1a - Articolo su rivista|
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