In the past three decades, fractional and fractal calculus (that is, calculus of derivatives and integral of any arbitrary real or complex order) appeared to be an important tool for its applications in many fields of science and engineering. This theory allows to face, analytically and/or numerically, fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations. In particular, one of the several applications deals with anomalous diffusion processes. The aim of this work is to develop a theoretical model in order to forecast the triggering and propagation of landslides, using the techniques of fractional calculus. The latter is suitable for modeling the water infiltration (i.e., the pore water pressure diffusion in the soil) and the dynamical processes in the fractal media. Alternatively the fractal representation of temporal and spatial derivative (the fractal order only appears in the denominator of the derivative) is considered and the results are compared to the fractional one. To sum up a three-dimensional model is developed, the water content is expressed in term of pore pressure (interpreted as a scalar field acting on the particles), whose increasing induces the shear strength reduction. The latter is taking into account by means of Mohr-Coulomb criterion that represents a failure criterion based on limit equilibrium theory. Moreover, the fluctuations depending on positions, in term of pore pressure, are also considered. Concerning the interaction between particles, a Lennard-Jones potential is taking into account and other active forces as gravity, dynamic friction and viscosity are also considered. For the updating of positions, the Verlet algorithm is used. The outcome of simulations are quite satisfactory and, although the model proposed is still quite schematic, the results encourage the investigations in this direction as this types of modeling can represent a new method to simulate landslides triggered by rainfall. Particularly, the results are consistent with the behavior of real landslides,e.g., it is possible to apply the method of the inverse surface displacement velocity for predicting the failure time. An interesting behavior emerges from the dynamic and statistical points of view. In the simulations emerging phenomena such as detachments, fractures and arching are observed. Finally, in the simulated system, a transition of the mean energy increment distribution from Gaussian to power law, varying the value of some parameters (i.e., viscosity coefficient) is observed or, fixed all parameters, the same behavior can be observed in the time, during single simulation, due to the stick and slip phases. As mentioned, considering that our understanding of the triggering mechanisms is limited and alternative approaches based on interconnected elements are meaningful to reproduce transition from slowly moving mass to catastrophic mass release, we are motivated to investigate mathematical methods, as fractional calculus, for the comprehension of non-linearity of the infiltration phenomena and particle-based approach to achieve a realistic description of the behavior of granular materials.

Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior / Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco. - In: GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS. - ISSN 1607-7962. - ELETTRONICO. - 18:(2016), pp. 17206-1-17206-4.

### Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

#### Abstract

In the past three decades, fractional and fractal calculus (that is, calculus of derivatives and integral of any arbitrary real or complex order) appeared to be an important tool for its applications in many fields of science and engineering. This theory allows to face, analytically and/or numerically, fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations. In particular, one of the several applications deals with anomalous diffusion processes. The aim of this work is to develop a theoretical model in order to forecast the triggering and propagation of landslides, using the techniques of fractional calculus. The latter is suitable for modeling the water infiltration (i.e., the pore water pressure diffusion in the soil) and the dynamical processes in the fractal media. Alternatively the fractal representation of temporal and spatial derivative (the fractal order only appears in the denominator of the derivative) is considered and the results are compared to the fractional one. To sum up a three-dimensional model is developed, the water content is expressed in term of pore pressure (interpreted as a scalar field acting on the particles), whose increasing induces the shear strength reduction. The latter is taking into account by means of Mohr-Coulomb criterion that represents a failure criterion based on limit equilibrium theory. Moreover, the fluctuations depending on positions, in term of pore pressure, are also considered. Concerning the interaction between particles, a Lennard-Jones potential is taking into account and other active forces as gravity, dynamic friction and viscosity are also considered. For the updating of positions, the Verlet algorithm is used. The outcome of simulations are quite satisfactory and, although the model proposed is still quite schematic, the results encourage the investigations in this direction as this types of modeling can represent a new method to simulate landslides triggered by rainfall. Particularly, the results are consistent with the behavior of real landslides,e.g., it is possible to apply the method of the inverse surface displacement velocity for predicting the failure time. An interesting behavior emerges from the dynamic and statistical points of view. In the simulations emerging phenomena such as detachments, fractures and arching are observed. Finally, in the simulated system, a transition of the mean energy increment distribution from Gaussian to power law, varying the value of some parameters (i.e., viscosity coefficient) is observed or, fixed all parameters, the same behavior can be observed in the time, during single simulation, due to the stick and slip phases. As mentioned, considering that our understanding of the triggering mechanisms is limited and alternative approaches based on interconnected elements are meaningful to reproduce transition from slowly moving mass to catastrophic mass release, we are motivated to investigate mathematical methods, as fractional calculus, for the comprehension of non-linearity of the infiltration phenomena and particle-based approach to achieve a realistic description of the behavior of granular materials.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: `https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1038745`
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