OBJECTIVES: The nuclear protein high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory mediator that belongs to the alarmin family of proinflammatory mediators, and it has recently emerged as a key player in different acute and chronic immune disorders. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that HMGB1 is actively released extracellularly from immune cells or passively released from necrotic cells. Because of the ability of HMGB1 to sustain chronic inflammation, we investigated whether the protein is present in nasal fluids of patients with different forms of rhinitis. METHODS: HMGB1 levels were evaluated in nasal fluids of healthy subjects or rhinitis patients who were treated or not treated with different treatments. RESULTS: We report that the level of HMGB1 was significantly increased in nasal fluids of patients with allergic rhinitis, patients with NARES (nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophiliac syndrome), as well as patients with polyps. We also found that a formulation containing the HMGB1-binding compound glycyrrhizin (GLT) reduced the HMGB1 content in nasal fluids of rhinitis patients to an extent similar to that with nasal budesonide treatment. We also found that among the cultured human leukocyte populations, eosinophils released higher amounts of HMGB1. Based on the ability of HMGB1 to sustain eosinophil survival and the ability of GLT to inactivate HMGB1, we report that GLT selectively killed cultured eosinophils and had no effect on neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data underscore the role of HMGB1 in rhinitis pathogenesis and the therapeutic potential of GLT formulations in treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders of the nasal mucosa.

Increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokine hmgb1 in nasal fluids of patients with rhinitis and its sequestration by glycyrrhizin induces eosinophil cell death / Cavone, Leonardo; Cuppari, Caterina; Manti, Sara; Grasso, Luisa; Arrigo, Teresa; Calamai, Luca; Salpietro, Carmelo; Chiarugi, Alberto. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY. - ISSN 1976-8710. - ELETTRONICO. - 8:(2015), pp. 123-128. [10.3342/ceo.2015.8.2.123]

Increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokine hmgb1 in nasal fluids of patients with rhinitis and its sequestration by glycyrrhizin induces eosinophil cell death

Cavone, Leonardo;Calamai, Luca;Chiarugi, Alberto
2015

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The nuclear protein high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory mediator that belongs to the alarmin family of proinflammatory mediators, and it has recently emerged as a key player in different acute and chronic immune disorders. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that HMGB1 is actively released extracellularly from immune cells or passively released from necrotic cells. Because of the ability of HMGB1 to sustain chronic inflammation, we investigated whether the protein is present in nasal fluids of patients with different forms of rhinitis. METHODS: HMGB1 levels were evaluated in nasal fluids of healthy subjects or rhinitis patients who were treated or not treated with different treatments. RESULTS: We report that the level of HMGB1 was significantly increased in nasal fluids of patients with allergic rhinitis, patients with NARES (nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophiliac syndrome), as well as patients with polyps. We also found that a formulation containing the HMGB1-binding compound glycyrrhizin (GLT) reduced the HMGB1 content in nasal fluids of rhinitis patients to an extent similar to that with nasal budesonide treatment. We also found that among the cultured human leukocyte populations, eosinophils released higher amounts of HMGB1. Based on the ability of HMGB1 to sustain eosinophil survival and the ability of GLT to inactivate HMGB1, we report that GLT selectively killed cultured eosinophils and had no effect on neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data underscore the role of HMGB1 in rhinitis pathogenesis and the therapeutic potential of GLT formulations in treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders of the nasal mucosa.
2015
8
123
128
Cavone, Leonardo; Cuppari, Caterina; Manti, Sara; Grasso, Luisa; Arrigo, Teresa; Calamai, Luca; Salpietro, Carmelo; Chiarugi, Alberto
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1108388
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