Despite the significant progress achieved in recent years, the physical mechanisms underlying the origin of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are still a matter of debate. The complex nature of both particle acceleration and transport poses challenges to developing a universal picture of SEP events that encompasses both the low-energy (from tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) observations made by space-based instruments and the GeV particles detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors in ground-level enhancements (GLEs). The high-precision data collected by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment offer a unique opportunity to study the SEP fluxes between ~80 MeV and a few GeV, significantly improving the characterization of the most energetic events. In particular, PAMELA can measure for the first time with good accuracy the spectral features at moderate and high energies, providing important constraints for current SEP models. In addition, the PAMELA observations allow the relationship between low- and high-energy particles to be investigated, enabling a clearer view of the SEP origin. No qualitative distinction between the spectral shapes of GLE, sub-GLE and non-GLE events is observed, suggesting that GLEs are not a separate class, but are the subset of a continuous distribution of SEP events that are more intense at high energies. While the spectral forms found are to be consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory, which predicts spectral rollovers at high energies that are attributed to particles escaping the shock region during acceleration, further work is required to explore the relative influences of acceleration and transport processes on SEP spectra.

Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission / Bruno, A.; Bazilevskaya, G.A.; Boezio, M.; Christian, E.R.; Nolfo, G. A. De; Martucci, M.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V.V.; Munini, R.; Richardson, I.G.; Ryan, J.M.; Stochaj, S.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.C.; Bellotti, R.; Bogomolov, E.A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Santis, C. De; Felice, V. Di; Galper, A.M.; Karelin, A.V.; Koldashov, S.V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S.Y.; Kvashnin, A.N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Mayorov, A.G.; Menn, W.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Osteria, G.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S.B.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y.I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.I.; Voronov, S.A.; Yurkin, Y.T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.. - In: THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 0004-637X. - ELETTRONICO. - 862:97:(2018), pp. 1-17. [10.3847/1538-4357/aacc26]

Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission

Adriani, O.;Bongi, M.;Bottai, S.;Mori, N.;Papini, P.;Ricciarini, S. B.;Vannuccini, E.;
2018

Abstract

Despite the significant progress achieved in recent years, the physical mechanisms underlying the origin of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are still a matter of debate. The complex nature of both particle acceleration and transport poses challenges to developing a universal picture of SEP events that encompasses both the low-energy (from tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) observations made by space-based instruments and the GeV particles detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors in ground-level enhancements (GLEs). The high-precision data collected by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment offer a unique opportunity to study the SEP fluxes between ~80 MeV and a few GeV, significantly improving the characterization of the most energetic events. In particular, PAMELA can measure for the first time with good accuracy the spectral features at moderate and high energies, providing important constraints for current SEP models. In addition, the PAMELA observations allow the relationship between low- and high-energy particles to be investigated, enabling a clearer view of the SEP origin. No qualitative distinction between the spectral shapes of GLE, sub-GLE and non-GLE events is observed, suggesting that GLEs are not a separate class, but are the subset of a continuous distribution of SEP events that are more intense at high energies. While the spectral forms found are to be consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory, which predicts spectral rollovers at high energies that are attributed to particles escaping the shock region during acceleration, further work is required to explore the relative influences of acceleration and transport processes on SEP spectra.
2018
862:97
1
17
Bruno, A.; Bazilevskaya, G.A.; Boezio, M.; Christian, E.R.; Nolfo, G. A. De; Martucci, M.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V.V.; Munini, R.; Richardson, I.G.; Ryan, J.M.; Stochaj, S.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.C.; Bellotti, R.; Bogomolov, E.A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Santis, C. De; Felice, V. Di; Galper, A.M.; Karelin, A.V.; Koldashov, S.V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S.Y.; Kvashnin, A.N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Mayorov, A.G.; Menn, W.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Osteria, G.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S.B.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y.I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.I.; Voronov, S.A.; Yurkin, Y.T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in FLORE sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1135422
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 69
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 60
social impact