A rockfall (RF) is a ubiquitous geohazard that is difficult to monitor or predict and poses a significant risk for people and transportation in several hilly and mountainous environments. The seismic signal generated by RF carries abundant physical and mechanical information. Thus, signals can be used by researchers to reconstruct the event location, onset time, volume and trajectory, and develop an efficient early warning system. Therefore, the precise automatic detection and classification of RF events are important objectives for scientists, especially in seismic monitoring arrays. An algorithm called DESTRO (DEtection and STorage of ROckfalls) aimed at combining seismic event automatic detection and classification was implemented ad hoc within the MATLAB environment. In event detection, the STA/LTA (short-time-average through long-time-average) method combined with other parameters, such as the minimum duration of an RF and the minimum interval time between two continuous seismic events is used. Furthermore, nine significant features based on the frequency, amplitude, seismic waveform, duration and multiple station attributes are newly proposed to classify seismic events in a RF environment. In particular, a three-step classification method is proposed for the discrimination of five different source types: RFs, earthquakes (EQs), tremors, multispike events (MSs) and subordinate MS events. Each component (vertical, east–west and north–south) at each station within the monitoring network is analysed, and a three-step classification is performed. At a given time, the event series detected from each component are integrated and reclassified component by component and station by station into a final event-type series as an output result. By this algorithm, a case study of the seven-month-long seismic monitoring of a former quarry in Central Italy was investigated by means of four triaxial velocimeters with continuous acquisition at a sampling rate of 200 Hz. During this monitoring period, a human-induced RF simulation was performed, releasing 95 blocks (in which 90 blocks validated) of different sizes from the benches of the quarry. Consequently, 64.9 per cent of EQs within 100 km were confirmed in a one-month monitoring period, 88 blocks in the RF simulation were classified correctly as RF events and 2 blocks were classified as MSs given their small energy. Finally, an ad hoc section of the algorithm was designed specifically for RF classification combined with EQ recognition. The algorithm could be applied in slope seismic monitoring to monitor the dynamic states of rock masses, as well as in slope instability forecasting and risk evaluation in EQ-prone areas.

Joint detection and classification of rockfalls in a microseismic monitoring network / Feng L.; Pazzi V.; Gigli G.; Intrieri E.; Gracchi T.. - In: GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL. - ISSN 0956-540X. - STAMPA. - 222:(2020), pp. 2108-2120. [10.1093/gji/ggaa287]

Joint detection and classification of rockfalls in a microseismic monitoring network

Feng L.;Pazzi V.;Gigli G.;Intrieri E.;Gracchi T.
2020

Abstract

A rockfall (RF) is a ubiquitous geohazard that is difficult to monitor or predict and poses a significant risk for people and transportation in several hilly and mountainous environments. The seismic signal generated by RF carries abundant physical and mechanical information. Thus, signals can be used by researchers to reconstruct the event location, onset time, volume and trajectory, and develop an efficient early warning system. Therefore, the precise automatic detection and classification of RF events are important objectives for scientists, especially in seismic monitoring arrays. An algorithm called DESTRO (DEtection and STorage of ROckfalls) aimed at combining seismic event automatic detection and classification was implemented ad hoc within the MATLAB environment. In event detection, the STA/LTA (short-time-average through long-time-average) method combined with other parameters, such as the minimum duration of an RF and the minimum interval time between two continuous seismic events is used. Furthermore, nine significant features based on the frequency, amplitude, seismic waveform, duration and multiple station attributes are newly proposed to classify seismic events in a RF environment. In particular, a three-step classification method is proposed for the discrimination of five different source types: RFs, earthquakes (EQs), tremors, multispike events (MSs) and subordinate MS events. Each component (vertical, east–west and north–south) at each station within the monitoring network is analysed, and a three-step classification is performed. At a given time, the event series detected from each component are integrated and reclassified component by component and station by station into a final event-type series as an output result. By this algorithm, a case study of the seven-month-long seismic monitoring of a former quarry in Central Italy was investigated by means of four triaxial velocimeters with continuous acquisition at a sampling rate of 200 Hz. During this monitoring period, a human-induced RF simulation was performed, releasing 95 blocks (in which 90 blocks validated) of different sizes from the benches of the quarry. Consequently, 64.9 per cent of EQs within 100 km were confirmed in a one-month monitoring period, 88 blocks in the RF simulation were classified correctly as RF events and 2 blocks were classified as MSs given their small energy. Finally, an ad hoc section of the algorithm was designed specifically for RF classification combined with EQ recognition. The algorithm could be applied in slope seismic monitoring to monitor the dynamic states of rock masses, as well as in slope instability forecasting and risk evaluation in EQ-prone areas.
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2108
2120
Goal 15: Life on land
Feng L.; Pazzi V.; Gigli G.; Intrieri E.; Gracchi T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2158/1199259
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