The mismatch repair (MMR) system has a major role in the detection and correction of DNA replication errors, resulting from DNA polymerase slippage or nucleotides misincorporation. Specific inherited/acquired alterations or epigenetic inactivation of MMR genes are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): the loss of crucial function in repairing DNA alterations can promote carcinogenesis by favoring the accumulation of thousands of mutations in a broad spectrum of different anatomic sites such as colon, stomach, prostate, esophagus, endometrium, lung and head and neck. Recent extensive data suggest that tumor mutational burden strongly correlates with a clinical response to immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors and this response is influenced by MMR deficiency in a wide range of human solid cancers. In this context, few data about this crucial point are available for head and neck cancer (HNC). In this review, we discuss the role of MMR alterations and the resulting MSI in HNC pathogenesis. Furthermore, by summarizing the clinical available data on how they influence the progression of precancerous lesions and the risk of recurrence or second primary tumors, we want to define the current role of MSI in the management of HNC. Finally, we analyze the complex interaction between cancer cells and the immune system addressing the data now available about a potential correlation between microsatellite instability and immunotherapy response in HNC.

The mismatch repair system (MMR) in head and neck carcinogenesis and its role in modulating the response to immunotherapy: A critical review / Cilona M.; Luca Giovanni Locatello; Novelli L.; Gallo O.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:(2020), pp. 1-21. [10.3390/cancers12103006]

The mismatch repair system (MMR) in head and neck carcinogenesis and its role in modulating the response to immunotherapy: A critical review

Cilona M.;Luca Giovanni Locatello;Novelli L.;Gallo O.
2020

Abstract

The mismatch repair (MMR) system has a major role in the detection and correction of DNA replication errors, resulting from DNA polymerase slippage or nucleotides misincorporation. Specific inherited/acquired alterations or epigenetic inactivation of MMR genes are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): the loss of crucial function in repairing DNA alterations can promote carcinogenesis by favoring the accumulation of thousands of mutations in a broad spectrum of different anatomic sites such as colon, stomach, prostate, esophagus, endometrium, lung and head and neck. Recent extensive data suggest that tumor mutational burden strongly correlates with a clinical response to immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors and this response is influenced by MMR deficiency in a wide range of human solid cancers. In this context, few data about this crucial point are available for head and neck cancer (HNC). In this review, we discuss the role of MMR alterations and the resulting MSI in HNC pathogenesis. Furthermore, by summarizing the clinical available data on how they influence the progression of precancerous lesions and the risk of recurrence or second primary tumors, we want to define the current role of MSI in the management of HNC. Finally, we analyze the complex interaction between cancer cells and the immune system addressing the data now available about a potential correlation between microsatellite instability and immunotherapy response in HNC.
2020
12
1
21
Goal 3: Good health and well-being for people
Cilona M.; Luca Giovanni Locatello; Novelli L.; Gallo O.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1215353
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