Aim: Few studies in the literature specifically address the hardiness of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the hardiness levels in an Italian cohort of nurses. The secondary aims were to assess the level of hardiness in nurses directly caring for patients with COVID-19 and to verify the presence of related risk and promoting factors. Methods: A descriptive and explorative study was performed through an online survey from March to July 2020. The survey was composed of a multiple answer questionnaire with open, closed, and semi-closed-ended questions. Hardiness and anxiety were assessed using two psychometric instruments: the Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS-15) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Results: A total of 1250 nurses completed the questionnaire entirely (92.3% of respondents). The average length of service was 17.8 ± 11.5 years. A decrease in the hardiness was recorded after the first wave of COVID-19 if compared to the baseline (mean Δ DRS-15 total = 1.3 ± 5.0), whereas in the subsample of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients, the total hardiness level decreased more consistently (mean Δ DRS Total = 1.9 + 5.3). Multivariate analysis showed that high levels of anxiety were risk factors for reducing hardiness. In contrast, anxiety, when associated with a greater length of service, was a promoting factor for the increase in hardiness. Conclusions: The correlation between anxiety and years of length of service appears to be pivotal. Future research should focus on the role of anxiety to establish its actual role as a predictor of hardiness.

Promoting and Risk Factors of Nurses' Hardiness Levels during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from an Italian Cohort / Baldassini Rodriguez, Samuele; Bardacci, Yari; El Aoufy, Khadija; Bazzini, Marco; Caruso, Christian; Giusti, Gian Domenico; Mezzetti, Andrea; Bambi, Stefano; Guazzini, Andrea; Rasero, Laura. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - ELETTRONICO. - 19:(2022), pp. 1-22. [10.3390/ijerph19031523]

Promoting and Risk Factors of Nurses' Hardiness Levels during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from an Italian Cohort

Baldassini Rodriguez, Samuele;Bardacci, Yari;El Aoufy, Khadija
;
Bazzini, Marco;Caruso, Christian;Giusti, Gian Domenico;Bambi, Stefano;Guazzini, Andrea;Rasero, Laura
2022

Abstract

Aim: Few studies in the literature specifically address the hardiness of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the hardiness levels in an Italian cohort of nurses. The secondary aims were to assess the level of hardiness in nurses directly caring for patients with COVID-19 and to verify the presence of related risk and promoting factors. Methods: A descriptive and explorative study was performed through an online survey from March to July 2020. The survey was composed of a multiple answer questionnaire with open, closed, and semi-closed-ended questions. Hardiness and anxiety were assessed using two psychometric instruments: the Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS-15) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Results: A total of 1250 nurses completed the questionnaire entirely (92.3% of respondents). The average length of service was 17.8 ± 11.5 years. A decrease in the hardiness was recorded after the first wave of COVID-19 if compared to the baseline (mean Δ DRS-15 total = 1.3 ± 5.0), whereas in the subsample of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients, the total hardiness level decreased more consistently (mean Δ DRS Total = 1.9 + 5.3). Multivariate analysis showed that high levels of anxiety were risk factors for reducing hardiness. In contrast, anxiety, when associated with a greater length of service, was a promoting factor for the increase in hardiness. Conclusions: The correlation between anxiety and years of length of service appears to be pivotal. Future research should focus on the role of anxiety to establish its actual role as a predictor of hardiness.
2022
19
1
22
Baldassini Rodriguez, Samuele; Bardacci, Yari; El Aoufy, Khadija; Bazzini, Marco; Caruso, Christian; Giusti, Gian Domenico; Mezzetti, Andrea; Bambi, Stefano; Guazzini, Andrea; Rasero, Laura
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1256995
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