Chronic liver injury of different etiologies may result in hepatic fibrosis, a scar formation process consisting in altered deposition of extracellular matrix. Progression of fibrosis can lead to impaired liver architecture and function, resulting in cirrhosis and organ failure. Although fibrosis was previous thought to be an irreversible process, recent evidence convincingly demonstrated resolution of fibrosis in different organs when the cause of injury is removed. In the liver, due to its high regenerative ability, the extent of fibrosis regression and reversion to normal architecture is higher than in other tissues, even in advanced disease. The mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution can be recapitulated in the following main points: removal of injurious factors causing chronic hepatic damage, elimination, or inactivation of myofibroblasts (through various cell fates, including apoptosis, senescence, and reprogramming), inactivation of inflammatory response and induction of anti-inflammatory/restorative pathways, and degradation of extracellular matrix. In this review, we will discuss the major cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis and the potential therapeutic approaches aimed at reversing the fibrogenic process.

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis regression / Caligiuri A.; Gentilini A.; Pastore M.; Gitto S.; Marra F.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - STAMPA. - 10:(2021), pp. 2759-2784. [10.3390/cells10102759]

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis regression

Caligiuri A.;Gentilini A.;Pastore M.;Gitto S.;Marra F.
2021

Abstract

Chronic liver injury of different etiologies may result in hepatic fibrosis, a scar formation process consisting in altered deposition of extracellular matrix. Progression of fibrosis can lead to impaired liver architecture and function, resulting in cirrhosis and organ failure. Although fibrosis was previous thought to be an irreversible process, recent evidence convincingly demonstrated resolution of fibrosis in different organs when the cause of injury is removed. In the liver, due to its high regenerative ability, the extent of fibrosis regression and reversion to normal architecture is higher than in other tissues, even in advanced disease. The mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution can be recapitulated in the following main points: removal of injurious factors causing chronic hepatic damage, elimination, or inactivation of myofibroblasts (through various cell fates, including apoptosis, senescence, and reprogramming), inactivation of inflammatory response and induction of anti-inflammatory/restorative pathways, and degradation of extracellular matrix. In this review, we will discuss the major cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis and the potential therapeutic approaches aimed at reversing the fibrogenic process.
2021
10
2759
2784
Caligiuri A.; Gentilini A.; Pastore M.; Gitto S.; Marra F.
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1261570
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