Spiral array transducers with a sparse 2-D aperture have demonstrated their potential in realizing 3-D ultrasound imaging with reduced data rates. Nevertheless, their feasibility in high-volume-rate imaging based on unfocused transmissions has yet to be established. From a metrology standpoint, it is essential to characterize the acoustic field of unfocused transmissions from spiral arrays not only to assess their safety but also to identify the root cause of imaging irregularities due to the array's sparse aperture. Here, we present a field profile analysis of unfocused transmissions from a density-tapered spiral array transducer (256 hexagonal elements, 220- [Formula: see text] element diameter, and 1-cm aperture diameter) through both simulations and hydrophone measurements. We investigated plane- and diverging-wave transmissions (five-cycle, 7.5-MHz pulses) from 0° to 10° steering for their beam intensity characteristics and wavefront arrival time profiles. Unfocused firings were also tested for B-mode imaging performance (ten compounded angles, -5° to 5° span). The array was found to produce unfocused transmissions with a peak negative pressure of 93.9 kPa at 2 cm depth. All transmissions steered up to 5° were free of secondary lobes within 12 dB of the main beam peak intensity. All wavefront arrival time profiles were found to closely match the expected profiles with maximum root-mean-squared errors of [Formula: see text] for plane wave (PW) and [Formula: see text] for diverging wave. The B-mode images showed good spatial resolution with a penetration depth of 22 mm in PW imaging. Overall, these results demonstrate that the density-tapered spiral array can facilitate unfocused transmissions below regulatory limits (mechanical index: 0.034; spatial-peak, pulse-average intensity: 0.298 W/cm2) and with suppressed secondary lobes while maintaining smooth wavefronts.

Unfocused Field Analysis of a Density-Tapered Spiral Array for High-Volume-Rate 3-D Ultrasound Imaging / Maffett, Rebekah; Boni, Enrico; Chee, Adrian J Y; Yiu, Billy Y S; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Yu, Alfred C H. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL. - ISSN 1525-8955. - ELETTRONICO. - 69:(2022), pp. 2810-2822. [10.1109/TUFFC.2022.3188245]

Unfocused Field Analysis of a Density-Tapered Spiral Array for High-Volume-Rate 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

Boni, Enrico;Savoia, Alessandro Stuart;Ramalli, Alessandro;Tortoli, Piero;
2022

Abstract

Spiral array transducers with a sparse 2-D aperture have demonstrated their potential in realizing 3-D ultrasound imaging with reduced data rates. Nevertheless, their feasibility in high-volume-rate imaging based on unfocused transmissions has yet to be established. From a metrology standpoint, it is essential to characterize the acoustic field of unfocused transmissions from spiral arrays not only to assess their safety but also to identify the root cause of imaging irregularities due to the array's sparse aperture. Here, we present a field profile analysis of unfocused transmissions from a density-tapered spiral array transducer (256 hexagonal elements, 220- [Formula: see text] element diameter, and 1-cm aperture diameter) through both simulations and hydrophone measurements. We investigated plane- and diverging-wave transmissions (five-cycle, 7.5-MHz pulses) from 0° to 10° steering for their beam intensity characteristics and wavefront arrival time profiles. Unfocused firings were also tested for B-mode imaging performance (ten compounded angles, -5° to 5° span). The array was found to produce unfocused transmissions with a peak negative pressure of 93.9 kPa at 2 cm depth. All transmissions steered up to 5° were free of secondary lobes within 12 dB of the main beam peak intensity. All wavefront arrival time profiles were found to closely match the expected profiles with maximum root-mean-squared errors of [Formula: see text] for plane wave (PW) and [Formula: see text] for diverging wave. The B-mode images showed good spatial resolution with a penetration depth of 22 mm in PW imaging. Overall, these results demonstrate that the density-tapered spiral array can facilitate unfocused transmissions below regulatory limits (mechanical index: 0.034; spatial-peak, pulse-average intensity: 0.298 W/cm2) and with suppressed secondary lobes while maintaining smooth wavefronts.
69
2810
2822
Maffett, Rebekah; Boni, Enrico; Chee, Adrian J Y; Yiu, Billy Y S; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Yu, Alfred C H
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1282161
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