Motorcycle simulators are employed for rider training, studying human–machine interaction, and developing assistance systems. However, existing simulators are either too simple and, therefore, unsuitable or significantly complex, with higher hardware costs and familiarisation times. This study aimed to use a tuned single-track car model as the basis of a motorcycle simulator, leading to considerable software simplification while preserving its fidelity. In particular, the approach defined a conversion between motorcycle steering torque and car steering angle. It modified the parameters of the latter to reproduce the response of various motorcycle models in quasistatic and transient conditions for different speeds and radii of curvature. A robust manoeuvrability index was chosen. For the car, it was possible to calculate it from its parameters analytically. Next, the car yaw inertia was tuned to obtain a motorcycle-like steering response. Finally, the calibrated car model was implemented into a low-complexity motorcycle simulator for objective validation. It was verified that an understeering single-track model with high yaw inertia has amplitude and phase responses analogous to a motorcycle. The experimental results of the simulator test confirmed these findings for a diverse set of manoeuvres, validating the method. This straightforward approach allows the development of low-complexity simulators with good steering fidelity, using an objective procedure to reproduce the behaviour of a chosen motorcycle class. In addition, the low computational cost of the model makes it a potential candidate for use in assistance systems.

Similarities in steering control between cars and motorcycles: application to a low‑complexity riding simulator / Bartolozzi Mirco, Berzi Lorenzo, Meli Enrico, Savino Giovanni. - In: MECCANICA. - ISSN 1572-9648. - ELETTRONICO. - --:(2022), pp. 1-21. [10.1007/s11012-022-01603-8]

Similarities in steering control between cars and motorcycles: application to a low‑complexity riding simulator

Bartolozzi Mirco
;
Berzi Lorenzo;Meli Enrico;Savino Giovanni
2022

Abstract

Motorcycle simulators are employed for rider training, studying human–machine interaction, and developing assistance systems. However, existing simulators are either too simple and, therefore, unsuitable or significantly complex, with higher hardware costs and familiarisation times. This study aimed to use a tuned single-track car model as the basis of a motorcycle simulator, leading to considerable software simplification while preserving its fidelity. In particular, the approach defined a conversion between motorcycle steering torque and car steering angle. It modified the parameters of the latter to reproduce the response of various motorcycle models in quasistatic and transient conditions for different speeds and radii of curvature. A robust manoeuvrability index was chosen. For the car, it was possible to calculate it from its parameters analytically. Next, the car yaw inertia was tuned to obtain a motorcycle-like steering response. Finally, the calibrated car model was implemented into a low-complexity motorcycle simulator for objective validation. It was verified that an understeering single-track model with high yaw inertia has amplitude and phase responses analogous to a motorcycle. The experimental results of the simulator test confirmed these findings for a diverse set of manoeuvres, validating the method. This straightforward approach allows the development of low-complexity simulators with good steering fidelity, using an objective procedure to reproduce the behaviour of a chosen motorcycle class. In addition, the low computational cost of the model makes it a potential candidate for use in assistance systems.
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Goal 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
Bartolozzi Mirco, Berzi Lorenzo, Meli Enrico, Savino Giovanni
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1286368
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