Background Knee varus alignment represents a notorious cause of knee osteoarthritis. It can be caused by tibial deformity, combined tibial-femoral deformity and/or ligament imbalance. Understanding malalignment is crucial in total knee arthroplasty to restore frontal plane neutral mechanical axis. The aim of this study was to determine which factor contributes the most to varus osteoarthritic knee and its related surgical implications in performing a total knee arthroplasty. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 140 patients operated for total knee arthroplasty due to a varus knee. Full-leg hip to ankle preoperative X-rays were taken. Radiological parameters recorded were: mechanical axis deviation, hip-knee-ankle, anatomical-mechanical angle, medial neck shaft angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), joint line convergence angle (JLCA), lateral proximal femoral angle, lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA), femoral bowing, and length of tibia and femur. We also determined ideals tibial and femoral cuts in mm according to mechanical alignment technique. A R2 was calculated based on the linear regression between the predicted values and the observed data. Results The greatest contributor to arthritic varus (R = 0.444) was MPTA. Minor contributors were mLDFA (R = 0.076), JLCA (R = 0.1554), LDTA (R = 0.065), and femoral bowing (R = 0.049). We recorded an average of 7.6 mm in lateral tibial cut thickness to restore neutral alignment. Conclusions The radiological major contributor to osteoarthritic varus knee alignment is related to proximal tibia deformity. As a surgical consequence, during performing total knee arthroplasty, the majority of the correction should therefore be made on tibial cut.

Varus morphology and its surgical implication in osteoarthritic knee and total knee arthroplasty / Suardi, Chiara; Stimolo, Davide; Zanna, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Fabrizio, Matassi; Civinini, Roberto; Innocenti, Matteo. - In: JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY AND RESEARCH. - ISSN 1749-799X. - ELETTRONICO. - 17:(2022), pp. 17-299. [10.1186/s13018-022-03184-4]

Varus morphology and its surgical implication in osteoarthritic knee and total knee arthroplasty

Suardi, Chiara;Stimolo, Davide;Zanna, Luigi;Carulli, Christian;Fabrizio, Matassi;Civinini, Roberto;Innocenti, Matteo
2022

Abstract

Background Knee varus alignment represents a notorious cause of knee osteoarthritis. It can be caused by tibial deformity, combined tibial-femoral deformity and/or ligament imbalance. Understanding malalignment is crucial in total knee arthroplasty to restore frontal plane neutral mechanical axis. The aim of this study was to determine which factor contributes the most to varus osteoarthritic knee and its related surgical implications in performing a total knee arthroplasty. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 140 patients operated for total knee arthroplasty due to a varus knee. Full-leg hip to ankle preoperative X-rays were taken. Radiological parameters recorded were: mechanical axis deviation, hip-knee-ankle, anatomical-mechanical angle, medial neck shaft angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), joint line convergence angle (JLCA), lateral proximal femoral angle, lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA), femoral bowing, and length of tibia and femur. We also determined ideals tibial and femoral cuts in mm according to mechanical alignment technique. A R2 was calculated based on the linear regression between the predicted values and the observed data. Results The greatest contributor to arthritic varus (R = 0.444) was MPTA. Minor contributors were mLDFA (R = 0.076), JLCA (R = 0.1554), LDTA (R = 0.065), and femoral bowing (R = 0.049). We recorded an average of 7.6 mm in lateral tibial cut thickness to restore neutral alignment. Conclusions The radiological major contributor to osteoarthritic varus knee alignment is related to proximal tibia deformity. As a surgical consequence, during performing total knee arthroplasty, the majority of the correction should therefore be made on tibial cut.
2022
17
17
299
Suardi, Chiara; Stimolo, Davide; Zanna, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Fabrizio, Matassi; Civinini, Roberto; Innocenti, Matteo
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1299785
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