Carbon dioxide (CO2), a vital molecule of the carbon cycle, is a critical component in living organisms' metabolism, performing functions that lead to the building of compounds fundamental for the life cycle. In all living organisms, the CO2/bicarbonate (HCO3-) balancing is governed by a superfamily of enzymes, known as carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs catalyze the pivotal physiological reaction, consisting of the reversible hydration of the CO2 to HCO3- and protons. Opportunistic and pathogenic fungi can sense the environmental CO2 levels, which influence their virulence or environmental subsistence traits. The fungal CO2-sensing is directly stimulated by HCO3- produced in a CA-dependent manner, which directly activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) involved in the fungal spore formation. The interference with CA activity may impair fungal growth and virulence, making this approach interesting for designing antifungal drugs with a novel mechanism of action: the inhibition of CAs linked to the CO2/HCO3-/pH chemosensing and signaling. This review reports that sulfonamides and their bioisosteres as well as inorganic anions can inhibit in vitro the beta- and alpha-CAs from the fungi, suggesting how CAs may be considered as a novel "pathogen protein" target of many opportunistic, pathogenic fungi.

A Highlight on the Inhibition of Fungal Carbonic Anhydrases as Drug Targets for the Antifungal Armamentarium / Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - ELETTRONICO. - 22:(2021), pp. 0-0. [10.3390/ijms22094324]

A Highlight on the Inhibition of Fungal Carbonic Anhydrases as Drug Targets for the Antifungal Armamentarium

Supuran, Claudiu T;
2021

Abstract

Carbon dioxide (CO2), a vital molecule of the carbon cycle, is a critical component in living organisms' metabolism, performing functions that lead to the building of compounds fundamental for the life cycle. In all living organisms, the CO2/bicarbonate (HCO3-) balancing is governed by a superfamily of enzymes, known as carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs catalyze the pivotal physiological reaction, consisting of the reversible hydration of the CO2 to HCO3- and protons. Opportunistic and pathogenic fungi can sense the environmental CO2 levels, which influence their virulence or environmental subsistence traits. The fungal CO2-sensing is directly stimulated by HCO3- produced in a CA-dependent manner, which directly activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) involved in the fungal spore formation. The interference with CA activity may impair fungal growth and virulence, making this approach interesting for designing antifungal drugs with a novel mechanism of action: the inhibition of CAs linked to the CO2/HCO3-/pH chemosensing and signaling. This review reports that sulfonamides and their bioisosteres as well as inorganic anions can inhibit in vitro the beta- and alpha-CAs from the fungi, suggesting how CAs may be considered as a novel "pathogen protein" target of many opportunistic, pathogenic fungi.
2021
22
0
0
Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1307535
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