: This study aims to investigate whether motorcyclists are able to use the full potential of anti-lock braking systems (ABS) in demanding braking situations that maintain the natural coupling of action and perception of emergency events, or whether instead the lack of braking skills in riders makes ABS almost ineffective and comparable to non-ABS brakes on dry pavement. Six experienced riders performed two experimental tests. First test included 12 emergency braking trials in a realistic scenario using a mock-up of an intersection conflict with a car initiating a left turn manoeuvre across the path (LTAP) of a motorcycle approaching from the opposite direction as an unpredicted moving hazard. Second test included three trials in a planned self-timed hard braking. The speed at the onset of braking was 35-45 km/h. The braking performance was measured from the initiation of brake pressure until the full stop of the vehicle. Front wheel ABS usage was determined by the pressure in the master cylinder and wheel callipers. The testing resulted in 85 data runs with full stop braking manoeuvres. Results revealed four categories of riders classified by their front wheel ABS usage during the emergency braking tests, which included two riders who underused front wheel ABS (9.6% and 27.4% of braking time on average). The worst case resulted in a significantly longer braking distance (braking deceleration of 5.2 m/s2). The highest skilled rider, who reached initial jerks close to 30 m/s3, used the ABS of the front wheel 93.7% of the braking time on average, resulting in a braking deceleration of 7.71 m/s2. Overall, the best braking performance was achieved in trials where the front ABS was activated for more than 80% of the braking. In planned self-timed hard braking test, where riders have more time to plan the braking manoeuvre, the experience rider with lowest performance during the emergency braking test improved braking efficiency and was able to increase ABS activation from 9.6% to 26.8% of the time, achieving a deceleration of 6.24 m/s2. ABS is demonstrated to reduce stopping distances and to improve stability under all braking conditions, but such features are not enough to guarantee a good braking performance in emergency events if the riders have not the skills to utilize the full braking power of the motorcycle. Less skilled riders, even with ABS, may not have the confidence to increase braking power further when reaching high decelerations that push them to the limit of their stabilisation control in emergency braking, thus increasing braking distance with potentially life-threatening consequences. Our results suggest that many experience riders still need knowledge and skill to make the ABS work to its optimum in emergency events to avoid crashes. Further research with larger sample sizes including the full diversity of the motorcyclist population is recommended to determine the actual proportion of motorcyclists underusing ABS.

Does ABS ensure good performance in emergency braking for less skilled motorcyclists? / Huertas Leyva, P; Savino, G; Baldanzini, N; Pierini, M. - In: ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION. - ISSN 0001-4575. - STAMPA. - 190:(2023), pp. 107148.1-107148.10. [10.1016/j.aap.2023.107148]

Does ABS ensure good performance in emergency braking for less skilled motorcyclists?

Huertas Leyva, P;Savino, G;Baldanzini, N;Pierini, M
2023

Abstract

: This study aims to investigate whether motorcyclists are able to use the full potential of anti-lock braking systems (ABS) in demanding braking situations that maintain the natural coupling of action and perception of emergency events, or whether instead the lack of braking skills in riders makes ABS almost ineffective and comparable to non-ABS brakes on dry pavement. Six experienced riders performed two experimental tests. First test included 12 emergency braking trials in a realistic scenario using a mock-up of an intersection conflict with a car initiating a left turn manoeuvre across the path (LTAP) of a motorcycle approaching from the opposite direction as an unpredicted moving hazard. Second test included three trials in a planned self-timed hard braking. The speed at the onset of braking was 35-45 km/h. The braking performance was measured from the initiation of brake pressure until the full stop of the vehicle. Front wheel ABS usage was determined by the pressure in the master cylinder and wheel callipers. The testing resulted in 85 data runs with full stop braking manoeuvres. Results revealed four categories of riders classified by their front wheel ABS usage during the emergency braking tests, which included two riders who underused front wheel ABS (9.6% and 27.4% of braking time on average). The worst case resulted in a significantly longer braking distance (braking deceleration of 5.2 m/s2). The highest skilled rider, who reached initial jerks close to 30 m/s3, used the ABS of the front wheel 93.7% of the braking time on average, resulting in a braking deceleration of 7.71 m/s2. Overall, the best braking performance was achieved in trials where the front ABS was activated for more than 80% of the braking. In planned self-timed hard braking test, where riders have more time to plan the braking manoeuvre, the experience rider with lowest performance during the emergency braking test improved braking efficiency and was able to increase ABS activation from 9.6% to 26.8% of the time, achieving a deceleration of 6.24 m/s2. ABS is demonstrated to reduce stopping distances and to improve stability under all braking conditions, but such features are not enough to guarantee a good braking performance in emergency events if the riders have not the skills to utilize the full braking power of the motorcycle. Less skilled riders, even with ABS, may not have the confidence to increase braking power further when reaching high decelerations that push them to the limit of their stabilisation control in emergency braking, thus increasing braking distance with potentially life-threatening consequences. Our results suggest that many experience riders still need knowledge and skill to make the ABS work to its optimum in emergency events to avoid crashes. Further research with larger sample sizes including the full diversity of the motorcyclist population is recommended to determine the actual proportion of motorcyclists underusing ABS.
2023
190
1
10
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
Huertas Leyva, P; Savino, G; Baldanzini, N; Pierini, M
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1321735
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