Purpose. High-fidelity mannequins are increasingly used to train the medical staff on many medical procedures. Lately, a new challenge regarding echogenic materials to build ultrasound-responding phantoms has emerged. The challenge is to find materials with a suitable combination of ultrasound velocity and consistency to the touch. Methods. Bibliographic research was performed to identify materials with promising stiffness, shape retention, and ultrasound velocity combinations. As-standardized-as-possible specimens were realized and tested using an A-mode ultrasound machine to evaluate the US velocity through them. Four differently doped silicones, five gelatin-based materials, five synthetic gelatins, and a 3D printable resin were included in the study. After being tested, the materials were monitored for 12 days to assess their durability and shape retention and tested again to evaluate the ultrasound velocity’s stability. In the paper, the results of the characterization and follow-up of the materials are presented. Results. Outcomes show that gelatins are exceptional soft tissue-mimicking materials in terms of ultrasound velocity and consistency to the touch, but are poor in terms of overtime stability and therefore suitable for disposable short-term phantoms only. Doped silicones present lower ultrasound velocity compared to the reference value of 1540 m/s found in the literature, but excellent overtime stability, and shape retention properties. Values close to biological ones were also given by the Elastic 50A and by polyvinyl chloride plastisol. Conclusion. The paper gives a quantitative overview of the fidelity of both already-in-use and non-conventional materials, focusing on the ultrasound velocity value through them and their longevity in terms of macroscopically observed dehydration, shape retention, and bacterial onset.

Acoustic velocity and stability of tissue-mimicking echogenic materials for ultrasound training phantoms / Mencarelli, Marta; Puggelli, Luca; Virga, Antonio; Furferi, Rocco; Volpe, Yary. - In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-2461. - ELETTRONICO. - 2024:(2024), pp. 0-0. [10.1007/s10853-024-09610-8]

Acoustic velocity and stability of tissue-mimicking echogenic materials for ultrasound training phantoms

Mencarelli, Marta;Puggelli, Luca;Virga, Antonio;Furferi, Rocco;Volpe, Yary
2024

Abstract

Purpose. High-fidelity mannequins are increasingly used to train the medical staff on many medical procedures. Lately, a new challenge regarding echogenic materials to build ultrasound-responding phantoms has emerged. The challenge is to find materials with a suitable combination of ultrasound velocity and consistency to the touch. Methods. Bibliographic research was performed to identify materials with promising stiffness, shape retention, and ultrasound velocity combinations. As-standardized-as-possible specimens were realized and tested using an A-mode ultrasound machine to evaluate the US velocity through them. Four differently doped silicones, five gelatin-based materials, five synthetic gelatins, and a 3D printable resin were included in the study. After being tested, the materials were monitored for 12 days to assess their durability and shape retention and tested again to evaluate the ultrasound velocity’s stability. In the paper, the results of the characterization and follow-up of the materials are presented. Results. Outcomes show that gelatins are exceptional soft tissue-mimicking materials in terms of ultrasound velocity and consistency to the touch, but are poor in terms of overtime stability and therefore suitable for disposable short-term phantoms only. Doped silicones present lower ultrasound velocity compared to the reference value of 1540 m/s found in the literature, but excellent overtime stability, and shape retention properties. Values close to biological ones were also given by the Elastic 50A and by polyvinyl chloride plastisol. Conclusion. The paper gives a quantitative overview of the fidelity of both already-in-use and non-conventional materials, focusing on the ultrasound velocity value through them and their longevity in terms of macroscopically observed dehydration, shape retention, and bacterial onset.
2024
2024
0
0
Mencarelli, Marta; Puggelli, Luca; Virga, Antonio; Furferi, Rocco; Volpe, Yary
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Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/1355492
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