Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.

Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease / Quarrell, Ow; Handley, O; O'Donovan, K; Dumoulin, C; Ramos-Arroyo, M; Biunno, I; Bauer, P; Kline, M; Landwehrmeyer, Gb; European Huntington’s Disease Network Barth, European Huntington’s Disease Network. Barth K; Correia Guedes, L; Maria Finisterra, A; Bascuñana Garde, M; Bos, R; Ecker, D; Held, C; Koppers, K; Laurà, M; Martínez Descals, A; Mclean, T; Mestre, T; Minster, S; Monza, D; Townhill, J; Orth, M; Padieu, H; Paterski, L; Peppa, N; Koivisto, Sp; Rialland, A; Røren, N; Šašinková, P; Cubillo, Pt; van Walsem, Mr; Witjes-Ané, Mn; Yudina, E; Zielonka, D; Zielonka, E; Zinzi, P; Bachoud-Lévi, Ac; Bentivoglio, Ar; Biunno, I; Bonelli, R; Burgunder, Jm; Dunnett, Sb; Ferreira, Jj; Handley, Oj; Heiberg, A; Illmann, T; Landwehrmeyer, Gb; Levey, J; Nielsen, Je; Päivärinta, M; Roos, Ra; Rojo Sebastián, A; Tabrizi, Sj; Vandenberghe, W; Verellen-Dumoulin, C; Zaremba, J; Uhrova, T; Wahlström, J; Bonelli, Rm; Herranhof, B; Holl, A; Kapfhammer, Hp; Koppitz, M; Magnet, M; Otti, D; Painold, A; Reisinger, K; Scheibl, M; Hecht, K; Lilek, S; Müller, N; Schöggl, H; Ullah, J; Brugger, F; Hepperger, C; Hotter, A; Mahlknecht, P; Nocker, M; Seppi, K; Wenning, G; Buratti, L; Hametner, Em; Holas, C; Hussl, A; Mair, K; Poewe, W; Wolf, E; Zangerl, A; Braunwarth, Em; Ribaï, P; Flamez, A; Morez, V; de Raedt, S; Boogaerts, A; Vandenberghe, W; van Reijen, D; Klempíř, J; Kucharík, M; Roth, J; Nielsen, Je; Hjermind, Le; Jakobsen, O; Stokholm, J; Hasholt, L; Nørremølle, A; Sørensen, Sa; Hiivola, H; Martikainen, K; Tuuha, K; Peippo, M; Sipponen, M; Kosinski, Cm; Milkereit, E; Probst, D; Sass, C; Schiefer, J; Schlangen, C; Werner, Cj; Gelderblom, H; Priller, J; Prüss, H; Spruth, Ej; Andrich, J; Hoffmann, R; Kraus, Ph; Muth, S; Prehn, C; Saft, C; Salmen, S; Stamm, C; Steiner, T; Strassburger, K; Lange, H; Friedrich, A; Hunger, U; Löhle, M; Schmidt, S; Storch, A; Wolz, A; Wolz, M; Lambeck, J; Zucker, B; Boelmans, K; Ganos, C; Hidding, U; Lewerenz, J; Münchau, A; Orth, M; Schmalfeld, J; Stubbe, L; Zittel, S; Heinicke, W; Longinus, B; Uni, M; Bürk, K; Möller, Jc; Rissling, I; Peinemann, A; Städtler, M; Weindl, A; Bechtel, N; Beckmann, H; Bohlen, S; Hölzner, E; Lange, H; Reilmann, R; Rohm, S; Rumpf, S; Schepers, S; Beister, A; Dose, M; Hammer, K; Kieni, J; Leythaeuser, G; Marquard, R; Raab, T; Richter, S; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, A; Schrenk, C; Schuierer, M; Wiedemann, A; Barth, K; Buck, A; Connemann, J; Ecker, D; Eschenbach, C; Held, C; Landwehrmeyer, B; Lezius, F; Nepper, S; Niess, A; Orth, M; Süssmuth, S; Trautmann, S; Weydt, P; Cormio, C; Difruscolo, O; Sciruicchio, V; Serpino, C; de Tommaso, M; Capellari, S; Cortelli, P; Gallassi, R; Poda, R; Rizzo, G; Scaglione, C; Bertini, E; Ghelli, E; Ginestroni, A; Massaro, F; Mechi, C; Paganini, M; Piacentini, S; Pradella, S; Romoli, Am; Sorbi, S; Abbruzzese, G; Bandettini di Poggio, M; Di Maria, E; Ferrandes, G; Mandich, P; Marchese, R; Albanese, A; Di Bella, D; Di Donato, S; Gellera, C; Genitrini, S; Mariotti, C; Monza, D; Nanetti, L; Paridi, D; Soliveri, P; Tomasello, C; De Michele, G; Di Maio, L; Rinaldi, C; Valeria Russo, C; Salvatore, E; Tucci, T; Cannella, M; Codella, V; De Gregorio, F; De Nicola, N; Martino, T; Simonelli, M; Squitieri, F; Bentivoglio, Ar; Catalli, C; Di Giacopo, R; Fasano, A; Frontali, M; Guidubaldi, A; Ialongo, T; Jacopini, G; Loria, G; Modoni, A; Piano, C; Piccininni, C; Quaranta, D; Romano, S; Soleti, F; Spadaro, M; Zinzi, P; van Hout, Ms; van Vugt, Jp; Marit de Weert, A; Bolwijn, Jj; Dekker, M; Leenders, Kl; van Oostrom, Jc; Bos, R; Dumas, Em; Jurgens, Ck; van den Bogaard, Sj; Roos, Ra; 't Hart, Ep; Witjes-Ané, Mn; Kremer, B; Verstappen, Cc; Heiberg, A; van Walsem, Mr; Aaserud, O; Wehus, R; Bjørgo, K; Fannemel, M; Gørvell, P; Koivisto, Sp; Retterstøl, L; Overland, T; Stokke, B; Bjørnevoll, I; Sando, Sb; Sitek, E; Slawek, J; Soltan, W; Boczarska-Jedynak, M; Jasinska-Myga, B; Opala, G; Kodowska-Duda, G; Banaszkiewicz, K; Szczudlik, A; Rudziñska, M; Wójcik, M; Dec, M; Krawczyk, M; Bryl, A; Ciesielska, A; Klimberg, A; Marcinkowski, J; Sempoowicz, J; Zielonka, D; Samara, H; Janik, P; Kalbarczyk, A; Kwiecinski, H; Jamrozik, Z; Antczak, J; Jachinska, K; Rakowicz, M; Richter, P; Ryglewicz, D; Witkowski, G; Zdzienicka, E; Zaremba, J; Suek, A; Krysa, W; Mestre, T; Guedes, L; Coelho, M; Mendes, T; Valadas, A; Ferreira, Jj; Cavaco, S; Damásio, J; Magalhães, M; Gago, M; Garrett, C; Guerra, Mr; Barrero, F; Morales, B; Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Sánchez, J; Alonso-Frech, F; Rabasa Perez, M; Fenollar, M; García, R; García, R; Quiroga, Pp; Vázquez Rivera, S; Villanueva, C; Bascuñana, M; Fatás Ventura, M; García Ribas, G; García de Yébenes, J; López-Sendón Moreno, Jl; Cubillo, Pt; García Ruíz, Pj; Martínez-Descals, A; José Saiz Artiga, M; Sánchez, V; Noguera Perea, F; Lorenza, F; Torres, Mm; Reinante, G; Vivancos Moreau, L; Barbera, Ma; Badenes Guia, D; Hernanz, Lc; Catena, Jl; Rojo Sebastián, A; Ferrer, Pq; Tome Carruesco, G; Bas, J; Busquets, N; Calopa, M; Dalmau Elorza, M; Díez, C; López, A; Durán, S; Terol, S; Floriach Robert, M; Garzón Ruíz, B; González Casado, A; Haro Martínez, I; Viladrich, Cm; Pons i, Càrdenas R; Roca, E; Llesoy, Jr; Ruiz Idiago, Jm; Ruíz Vergara, M; Soriano García, S; Villa Riballo, A; Gorospe, A; Legarda, I; Arques, Pn; Torres Rodríguez, Mj; Vives, B; Gaston, I; Bosca, M; Burguera, Ja; Garcia, Ac; Pålhagen, Se; Paucar, M; Svenningsson, P; Walldén Reza-Soltani, T; Höglund, A; Sandström, B; Wahlström, J; Høsterey-Ugander, U; Fredlund, G; Constantinescu, R; Neleborn-Lingefjärd, L; Tedroff, J; Esmaeilzadeh, M; Winnberg, E; Burgunder, Jm; Burgunder, Y; Stebler, Y; Kaelin, A; Romero, I; Schüpbach, M; Zaugg, Sw; Jack, R; Matheson, K; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Rae, D; Simpson, S; Summers, F; Ure, A; Crooks, J; Curtis, A; de Souza, J; Rickards, H; Wright, J; Barker, Ra; Di Pietro, A; Fisher, K; Goodman, A; Hill, S; Kershaw, A; Mason, S; Paterson, N; Raymond, L; Bisson, J; Busse, M; Clenaghan, C; Ellison-Rose, L; Handley, O; Hunt, S; Townhill, J; Price, K; Rosser, A; Edwards, M; Hughes, T; Mcgill, M; Pearson, P; Porteous, M; Smith, P; Zeman, A; Causley, A; Harrower, T; Howcroft, D; Lambord, N; Rankin, J; Brockie, P; Foster, J; Johns, N; Mckenzie, S; Rothery, J; Thomas, G; Yates, S; Miller, J; Ritchie, S; Burrows, L; Fletcher, A; Harding, A; Laver, F; Silva, M; Thomson, A; Barnes, K; Chu, C; Hobson, E; Jamieson, S; Markova, I; Thomson, J; Toscano, J; Wild, S; Yardumian, P; Bourne, C; Clayton, C; Dipple, H; Clapton, J; Grant, J; Gross, D; Hallam, C; Middleton, J; Murch, A; Patino, D; Andrews, T; Dougherty, A; Kavalier, F; Golding, C; Lashwood, A; Robertson, D; Ruddy, D; Whaite, A; Patton, M; Peterson, M; Rose, S; Andrews, T; Bruno, S; Chu, E; Doherty, K; Golding, C; Henley, S; Lahiri, N; Novak, M; Patel, A; Read, J; Rosser, E; Say, M; Tabrizi, S; Taylor, R; Warner, T; Wild, E; Arran, N; Callaghan, J; Craufurd, D; Fullam, R; Howard, L; Huson, S; Oughton, E; Partington-Jones, L; Snowden, J; Sollom, A; Stopford, C; Thompson, J; Trender-Gerhad, I; Verstraelen, N; Westmoreland, L; Nemeth, Ah; Suida, G; Harrison, D; Hughes, M; Parkinson, A; Soltysiak, B; Bandmann, O; Bradbury, A; Gill, P; Fairtlough, H; Fillingham, K; Foustanos, I; Peppa, N; Tidswell, K.. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS. - ISSN 1018-4813. - STAMPA. - 20:(2012), pp. 20-26. [10.1038/ejhg.2011.136]

Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

PAGANINI, MARCO;PIACENTINI, SILVIA;SORBI, SANDRO;
2012

Abstract

Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.
2012
20
20
26
Quarrell, Ow; Handley, O; O'Donovan, K; Dumoulin, C; Ramos-Arroyo, M; Biunno, I; Bauer, P; Kline, M; Landwehrmeyer, Gb; European Huntington’s Disease Network Barth, European Huntington’s Disease Network. Barth K; Correia Guedes, L; Maria Finisterra, A; Bascuñana Garde, M; Bos, R; Ecker, D; Held, C; Koppers, K; Laurà, M; Martínez Descals, A; Mclean, T; Mestre, T; Minster, S; Monza, D; Townhill, J; Orth, M; Padieu, H; Paterski, L; Peppa, N; Koivisto, Sp; Rialland, A; Røren, N; Šašinková, P; Cubillo, Pt; van Walsem, Mr; Witjes-Ané, Mn; Yudina, E; Zielonka, D; Zielonka, E; Zinzi, P; Bachoud-Lévi, Ac; Bentivoglio, Ar; Biunno, I; Bonelli, R; Burgunder, Jm; Dunnett, Sb; Ferreira, Jj; Handley, Oj; Heiberg, A; Illmann, T; Landwehrmeyer, Gb; Levey, J; Nielsen, Je; Päivärinta, M; Roos, Ra; Rojo Sebastián, A; Tabrizi, Sj; Vandenberghe, W; Verellen-Dumoulin, C; Zaremba, J; Uhrova, T; Wahlström, J; Bonelli, Rm; Herranhof, B; Holl, A; Kapfhammer, Hp; Koppitz, M; Magnet, M; Otti, D; Painold, A; Reisinger, K; Scheibl, M; Hecht, K; Lilek, S; Müller, N; Schöggl, H; Ullah, J; Brugger, F; Hepperger, C; Hotter, A; Mahlknecht, P; Nocker, M; Seppi, K; Wenning, G; Buratti, L; Hametner, Em; Holas, C; Hussl, A; Mair, K; Poewe, W; Wolf, E; Zangerl, A; Braunwarth, Em; Ribaï, P; Flamez, A; Morez, V; de Raedt, S; Boogaerts, A; Vandenberghe, W; van Reijen, D; Klempíř, J; Kucharík, M; Roth, J; Nielsen, Je; Hjermind, Le; Jakobsen, O; Stokholm, J; Hasholt, L; Nørremølle, A; Sørensen, Sa; Hiivola, H; Martikainen, K; Tuuha, K; Peippo, M; Sipponen, M; Kosinski, Cm; Milkereit, E; Probst, D; Sass, C; Schiefer, J; Schlangen, C; Werner, Cj; Gelderblom, H; Priller, J; Prüss, H; Spruth, Ej; Andrich, J; Hoffmann, R; Kraus, Ph; Muth, S; Prehn, C; Saft, C; Salmen, S; Stamm, C; Steiner, T; Strassburger, K; Lange, H; Friedrich, A; Hunger, U; Löhle, M; Schmidt, S; Storch, A; Wolz, A; Wolz, M; Lambeck, J; Zucker, B; Boelmans, K; Ganos, C; Hidding, U; Lewerenz, J; Münchau, A; Orth, M; Schmalfeld, J; Stubbe, L; Zittel, S; Heinicke, W; Longinus, B; Uni, M; Bürk, K; Möller, Jc; Rissling, I; Peinemann, A; Städtler, M; Weindl, A; Bechtel, N; Beckmann, H; Bohlen, S; Hölzner, E; Lange, H; Reilmann, R; Rohm, S; Rumpf, S; Schepers, S; Beister, A; Dose, M; Hammer, K; Kieni, J; Leythaeuser, G; Marquard, R; Raab, T; Richter, S; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, A; Schrenk, C; Schuierer, M; Wiedemann, A; Barth, K; Buck, A; Connemann, J; Ecker, D; Eschenbach, C; Held, C; Landwehrmeyer, B; Lezius, F; Nepper, S; Niess, A; Orth, M; Süssmuth, S; Trautmann, S; Weydt, P; Cormio, C; Difruscolo, O; Sciruicchio, V; Serpino, C; de Tommaso, M; Capellari, S; Cortelli, P; Gallassi, R; Poda, R; Rizzo, G; Scaglione, C; Bertini, E; Ghelli, E; Ginestroni, A; Massaro, F; Mechi, C; Paganini, M; Piacentini, S; Pradella, S; Romoli, Am; Sorbi, S; Abbruzzese, G; Bandettini di Poggio, M; Di Maria, E; Ferrandes, G; Mandich, P; Marchese, R; Albanese, A; Di Bella, D; Di Donato, S; Gellera, C; Genitrini, S; Mariotti, C; Monza, D; Nanetti, L; Paridi, D; Soliveri, P; Tomasello, C; De Michele, G; Di Maio, L; Rinaldi, C; Valeria Russo, C; Salvatore, E; Tucci, T; Cannella, M; Codella, V; De Gregorio, F; De Nicola, N; Martino, T; Simonelli, M; Squitieri, F; Bentivoglio, Ar; Catalli, C; Di Giacopo, R; Fasano, A; Frontali, M; Guidubaldi, A; Ialongo, T; Jacopini, G; Loria, G; Modoni, A; Piano, C; Piccininni, C; Quaranta, D; Romano, S; Soleti, F; Spadaro, M; Zinzi, P; van Hout, Ms; van Vugt, Jp; Marit de Weert, A; Bolwijn, Jj; Dekker, M; Leenders, Kl; van Oostrom, Jc; Bos, R; Dumas, Em; Jurgens, Ck; van den Bogaard, Sj; Roos, Ra; 't Hart, Ep; Witjes-Ané, Mn; Kremer, B; Verstappen, Cc; Heiberg, A; van Walsem, Mr; Aaserud, O; Wehus, R; Bjørgo, K; Fannemel, M; Gørvell, P; Koivisto, Sp; Retterstøl, L; Overland, T; Stokke, B; Bjørnevoll, I; Sando, Sb; Sitek, E; Slawek, J; Soltan, W; Boczarska-Jedynak, M; Jasinska-Myga, B; Opala, G; Kodowska-Duda, G; Banaszkiewicz, K; Szczudlik, A; Rudziñska, M; Wójcik, M; Dec, M; Krawczyk, M; Bryl, A; Ciesielska, A; Klimberg, A; Marcinkowski, J; Sempoowicz, J; Zielonka, D; Samara, H; Janik, P; Kalbarczyk, A; Kwiecinski, H; Jamrozik, Z; Antczak, J; Jachinska, K; Rakowicz, M; Richter, P; Ryglewicz, D; Witkowski, G; Zdzienicka, E; Zaremba, J; Suek, A; Krysa, W; Mestre, T; Guedes, L; Coelho, M; Mendes, T; Valadas, A; Ferreira, Jj; Cavaco, S; Damásio, J; Magalhães, M; Gago, M; Garrett, C; Guerra, Mr; Barrero, F; Morales, B; Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Sánchez, J; Alonso-Frech, F; Rabasa Perez, M; Fenollar, M; García, R; García, R; Quiroga, Pp; Vázquez Rivera, S; Villanueva, C; Bascuñana, M; Fatás Ventura, M; García Ribas, G; García de Yébenes, J; López-Sendón Moreno, Jl; Cubillo, Pt; García Ruíz, Pj; Martínez-Descals, A; José Saiz Artiga, M; Sánchez, V; Noguera Perea, F; Lorenza, F; Torres, Mm; Reinante, G; Vivancos Moreau, L; Barbera, Ma; Badenes Guia, D; Hernanz, Lc; Catena, Jl; Rojo Sebastián, A; Ferrer, Pq; Tome Carruesco, G; Bas, J; Busquets, N; Calopa, M; Dalmau Elorza, M; Díez, C; López, A; Durán, S; Terol, S; Floriach Robert, M; Garzón Ruíz, B; González Casado, A; Haro Martínez, I; Viladrich, Cm; Pons i, Càrdenas R; Roca, E; Llesoy, Jr; Ruiz Idiago, Jm; Ruíz Vergara, M; Soriano García, S; Villa Riballo, A; Gorospe, A; Legarda, I; Arques, Pn; Torres Rodríguez, Mj; Vives, B; Gaston, I; Bosca, M; Burguera, Ja; Garcia, Ac; Pålhagen, Se; Paucar, M; Svenningsson, P; Walldén Reza-Soltani, T; Höglund, A; Sandström, B; Wahlström, J; Høsterey-Ugander, U; Fredlund, G; Constantinescu, R; Neleborn-Lingefjärd, L; Tedroff, J; Esmaeilzadeh, M; Winnberg, E; Burgunder, Jm; Burgunder, Y; Stebler, Y; Kaelin, A; Romero, I; Schüpbach, M; Zaugg, Sw; Jack, R; Matheson, K; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Rae, D; Simpson, S; Summers, F; Ure, A; Crooks, J; Curtis, A; de Souza, J; Rickards, H; Wright, J; Barker, Ra; Di Pietro, A; Fisher, K; Goodman, A; Hill, S; Kershaw, A; Mason, S; Paterson, N; Raymond, L; Bisson, J; Busse, M; Clenaghan, C; Ellison-Rose, L; Handley, O; Hunt, S; Townhill, J; Price, K; Rosser, A; Edwards, M; Hughes, T; Mcgill, M; Pearson, P; Porteous, M; Smith, P; Zeman, A; Causley, A; Harrower, T; Howcroft, D; Lambord, N; Rankin, J; Brockie, P; Foster, J; Johns, N; Mckenzie, S; Rothery, J; Thomas, G; Yates, S; Miller, J; Ritchie, S; Burrows, L; Fletcher, A; Harding, A; Laver, F; Silva, M; Thomson, A; Barnes, K; Chu, C; Hobson, E; Jamieson, S; Markova, I; Thomson, J; Toscano, J; Wild, S; Yardumian, P; Bourne, C; Clayton, C; Dipple, H; Clapton, J; Grant, J; Gross, D; Hallam, C; Middleton, J; Murch, A; Patino, D; Andrews, T; Dougherty, A; Kavalier, F; Golding, C; Lashwood, A; Robertson, D; Ruddy, D; Whaite, A; Patton, M; Peterson, M; Rose, S; Andrews, T; Bruno, S; Chu, E; Doherty, K; Golding, C; Henley, S; Lahiri, N; Novak, M; Patel, A; Read, J; Rosser, E; Say, M; Tabrizi, S; Taylor, R; Warner, T; Wild, E; Arran, N; Callaghan, J; Craufurd, D; Fullam, R; Howard, L; Huson, S; Oughton, E; Partington-Jones, L; Snowden, J; Sollom, A; Stopford, C; Thompson, J; Trender-Gerhad, I; Verstraelen, N; Westmoreland, L; Nemeth, Ah; Suida, G; Harrison, D; Hughes, M; Parkinson, A; Soltysiak, B; Bandmann, O; Bradbury, A; Gill, P; Fairtlough, H; Fillingham, K; Foustanos, I; Peppa, N; Tidswell, K.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
quarrell .pdf

Accesso chiuso

Descrizione: articolo principale
Tipologia: Pdf editoriale (Version of record)
Licenza: DRM non definito
Dimensione 329.8 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
329.8 kB Adobe PDF   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in FLORE sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificatore per citare o creare un link a questa risorsa: https://hdl.handle.net/2158/597042
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 13
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact