Reaction of TBDMS-protected bile acids (cholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, lithocholic, ursodeoxycholic acids) or dehydrocholic acid with aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing free amino/hydroxy moieties, in the presence of carbodiimides, afforded after deprotection of the OTBDMS ethers, a series of sulfonamides incorporating bile acid moieties in their molecules. Many such derivatives showed strong inhibitory properties against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 126.96.36.199), that is CA I, II and IV, zinc enzymes playing critical roles in many pathologies, and which represent interesting targets for developing diverse pharmacological agents. Some of the most active derivatives, incorporating 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide or benzothiazole-2-sulfonamide functionalities in their molecules, showed low nanomolar affinity for CA II and CAIV. Furthermore, the bioavailability of these derivatives in rabbits is comparable to that of acetazolamide, being in the range of 85-90\%, showing them as promising candidates for systemically acting CA inhibitors.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Preparation of potent sulfonamides inhibitors incorporating bile acid tails / A. Scozzafava;C. T. Supuran. - In: BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS. - ISSN 0960-894X. - STAMPA. - 12:(2002), pp. 1551-1557.