Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation in the brain of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in the form of senile plaques. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the aggregation process of Aβ also generates smaller soluble misfolded oligom- ers that contribute to disease progression. One of the mechanisms of Aβ oligomer cytotoxicity is the aberrant interaction of these species with the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes, with a consequent increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, flowing from the extracellular space, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the relationship between the increase in Ca 2+ and ROS levels immediately after the exposure to misfolded protein oligomers, asking whether they are simultaneous or instead one precedes the other. Using Aβ 42 -derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) and type A HypF-N model oligomers (OAs), we followed the kinetics of ROS production and Ca 2+ influx in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat primary cortical neurons in a variety of conditions. In all cases we found a faster increase of intracellular Ca 2+ than ROS levels, and a lag phase in the latter process. A Ca 2+ -deprived cell medium prevented the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ ions and abolished ROS production. By contrast, treatment with antioxidant agents prevented ROS formation, did not prevent the initial Ca 2+ flux, but allowed the cells to react to the initial calcium dyshomeostasis, restoring later the normal levels of the ions. These results reveal a mechanism in which the entry of Ca 2+ causes the production of ROS in cells challenged by aberrant protein oligomers.

Misfolded protein oligomers induce an increase of intracellular Ca2+ causing an escalation of reactive oxidative species / Giulia Fani, Chiara Ester La Torre, Roberta Cascella, Cristina Cecchi, Michele Vendruscolo, Fabrizio Chiti. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-9071. - ELETTRONICO. - 79:(2022), pp. 500-500. [10.1007/s00018-022-04513-w]

Misfolded protein oligomers induce an increase of intracellular Ca2+ causing an escalation of reactive oxidative species

Giulia Fani;Roberta Cascella;Cristina Cecchi;Fabrizio Chiti
2022

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation in the brain of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in the form of senile plaques. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the aggregation process of Aβ also generates smaller soluble misfolded oligom- ers that contribute to disease progression. One of the mechanisms of Aβ oligomer cytotoxicity is the aberrant interaction of these species with the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes, with a consequent increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, flowing from the extracellular space, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the relationship between the increase in Ca 2+ and ROS levels immediately after the exposure to misfolded protein oligomers, asking whether they are simultaneous or instead one precedes the other. Using Aβ 42 -derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) and type A HypF-N model oligomers (OAs), we followed the kinetics of ROS production and Ca 2+ influx in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat primary cortical neurons in a variety of conditions. In all cases we found a faster increase of intracellular Ca 2+ than ROS levels, and a lag phase in the latter process. A Ca 2+ -deprived cell medium prevented the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ ions and abolished ROS production. By contrast, treatment with antioxidant agents prevented ROS formation, did not prevent the initial Ca 2+ flux, but allowed the cells to react to the initial calcium dyshomeostasis, restoring later the normal levels of the ions. These results reveal a mechanism in which the entry of Ca 2+ causes the production of ROS in cells challenged by aberrant protein oligomers.
79
500
500
Giulia Fani, Chiara Ester La Torre, Roberta Cascella, Cristina Cecchi, Michele Vendruscolo, Fabrizio Chiti
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2158/1281043
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