Carbonic anhydrases (CA) play an important role in biomineralization from invertebrates to vertebrates. Previous experiments have investigated the role of CA in coral calcification, mainly by pharmacological approaches. This study reports the molecular cloning, sequencing, and immunolocalization of a CA isolated from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata, named STPCA. Results show that STPCA is a secreted form of alpha-CA, which possesses a CA catalytic function, similar to the secreted human CAVI. We localized this enzyme at the calicoblastic ectoderm level, which is responsible for the precipitation of the skeleton. This localization supports the role of STPCA in the calcification process. In symbiotic scleractinian corals, calcification is stimulated by light, a phenomenon called "light-enhanced calcification" (LEC). The mechanism by which symbiont photosynthesis stimulates calcification is still enigmatic. We tested the hypothesis that coral genes are differentially expressed under light and dark conditions. By real-time PCR, we investigated the differential expression of STPCA to determine its role in the LEC phenomenon. Results show that the STPCA gene is expressed 2-fold more during the dark than the light. We suggest that in the dark, up-regulation of the STPCA gene represents a mechanism to cope with night acidosis.
Carbonic anhydrase in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata: characterization, localization, and role in biomineralization / A. Moya;S. Tambutté;A. Bertucci;E. Tambutté;S. Lotto;D. Vullo;C. T. Supuran;D. Allemand;D. Zoccola. - In: THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0021-9258. - STAMPA. - 283:(2008), pp. 25475-25484. [10.1074/jbc.M804726200]